Glory (from the Latin gloria, "fame, renown") is used to describe the manifestation of God's presence as perceived by humans according to the Abrahamic religions.
Divine glory is an important motif throughout Christian theology, where God is regarded as the most glorious being in existence, and it is considered that human beings are created in the Image of God and can share or participate, imperfectly, in divine glory as image-bearers. Thus Christians are instructed to "let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven."
"Glory" is one of the most common words in scripture. In the Old Testament, the word is used to translate several Hebrew words, including Hod (הוד) and kabod, and in the New Testament it is used to translate the Greek word doxa (δόξα). The Hebrew word kabod (K-B-D) originally means "weight" or "heaviness." The same word is then used to express importance, honor, and majesty. Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible translated this concept with the word δόξα, which was then used extensively in the New Testament as well. Doxa originally means "judgment, opinion", and by extension, "good reputation, honor". Assuming that these various words and uses should refer to a single underlying concept, St. Augustine renders it as clara notitia cum laude, "brilliant celebrity with praise".
In the Bible
Further information: Doxa and K-B-D
In Exodus 33:19, Moses is told that no human being can see the glory (Hebrew: כָּבוֹד kabod) of Yahweh and survive:
And the Lord said to Moses, “This very thing that you have spoken I will do, for you have found favor in my sight, and I know you by name.” Moses said, “Please show me your glory.” And he said, “I will make all my goodness pass before you and will proclaim before you my name ‘The Lord.’ And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy." But, he said, “you cannot see my face, for man shall not see me and live.” And the Lord said, “Behold, there is a place by me where you shall stand on the rock, and while my glory passes by I will put you in a cleft of the rock, and I will cover you with my hand until I have passed by. Then I will take away my hand, and you shall see my back, but my face shall not be seen.”
The prophet Ezekiel writes in his vision:
And upward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were gleaming metal, like the appearance of fire enclosed all around. And downward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him. Like the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness all around.Such was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord. And when I saw it, I fell on my face, and I heard the voice of one speaking.
In the New Testament, the corresponding word is the Greek: δοξα, doxa, sometimes also translated "brightness". For example, at the nativity of Christ:
In the countryside close by there were shepherds out in the fields keeping guard over their sheep during the watches of the night. An angel of the Lord stood over them and the glory of the Lord shone round them. They were terrified, but the angel said, 'Do not be afraid. Look, I bring you news of great joy, a joy to be shared by the whole people.'
In the event known as the Transfiguration of Jesus, Moses and Elijah appeared in glory with Jesus, and the disciples who witnessed this revelation, Peter, James and John, 'saw his glory'.
In the gospel of John, Jesus says that His destiny begins to be fulfilled when Judas Iscariot sets out to betray Him:
- Now the Son of Man is glorified, and God is glorified in Him (John 13:31.
Jesus subsequently addresses a long prayer to His Father in which he says:
- I have glorified you on earth by finishing the work that you gave me to do. Now, Father, glorify me with that glory I had with you before ever the world existed.
Catholic doctrine asserts that the world was created as an act of God's free will for his own glory. Catholic doctrine teaches, however, that God does not seek to be glorified for his own sake, but for the sake of mankind that they may know Him.
The theologian C. S. Lewis, in his essay The Weight of Glory, writes "Glory suggests two ideas to me, of which one seems wicked and the other ridiculous. Either glory means to me fame, or it means luminosity." He concludes that glory should be understood in the former sense, but states that one should not desire fame before men (human glory), but fame before God (divine glory).
In Orthodox Christianity
Glorification (also referred to as canonization) is the term used in the Orthodox Christian Church for the official recognition of a person as a saint of the Church. The Orthodox Christian term theosis is roughly equivalent to the Protestant concept of glorification.
It is in this sense that the resurrected bodies of the righteous will be "glorified" at the Second Coming. As the soul was illuminated through theosis so the restored body will be illuminated by the grace of God when it is "changed" at the Parousia (1 Corinthians 15:51). This glorified body will be like the resurrected body of Jesus (John 20:19-20); similar in appearance to the body during life, but of a more refined and spiritualized nature (1 Corinthians 15:39).
Main article: Glorification
In his dissertation "Concerning the End for which God Created the World", Jonathan Edwards concludes, "[I]t appears that all that is ever spoken of in the Scripture as an ultimate end of God's works is included in that one phrase, `the glory of God'."
There are two events that occur during glorification, these are "the receiving of perfection by the elect before entering into the kingdom of heaven," and "the receiving of the resurrection bodies by the elect"
Glorification is the third stage of Christian development. The first being justification, then sanctification, and finally glorification. (Rom. 8:28-30) Glorification is the full realization of salvation.
Receiving of Perfection
Glorification is the Protestant alternative to purgatory, as it is "the means by which the elect receive perfection before entering into the kingdom of Heaven." Purgatory deals with the means by which the elect become perfect, glorification deals with the elect becoming perfect. The majority of Protestant denominations believe in this form of glorification, although some have alternative names.
Receiving of the Resurrection Bodies
After the final judgement, in some doctrines all the righteous dead will arise and their bodies will be perfected and become a glorified body, under which form they can enter Heaven.
In the Baha'i Faith
The Baha'i Faith claims that Baha'u'llah, whose name translates to the Glory of God, is the Messenger of God promised to Man by all the older Abrahamic religions, like Christianity, Judaism and Islam. In Bahá'í belief the Greatest Name is Bahá’ (بهاء), translated as "glory" or "splendour."
In Islamic belief, God has 99 names, and in some Islamic traditions it is believed that there is a special hidden 100th name which is the greatest.
Main article: Vanity
In comparison to the desire for glory from God, stands the desire for glory from man. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologica, cautions that an inordinate desire of glory, or praise, from man is a sin. He lists vainglory as a capital vice and, in some cases, as a mortal sin, cf. quotation. However, this is not to be confused with the desire for what Aquinas calls honours, which Aquinas considered a good, and embraces a moderate and reasoned pursuance of.
As stated above (24, 12; 110, 4; 112, 2), a sin is mortal through being contrary to charity. Now the sin of vainglory, considered in itself, does not seem to be contrary to charity as regards the love of one's neighbor: yet as regards the love of God it may be contrary to charity in two ways. On one way, by reason of the matter about which one glories: for instance when one glories in something false that is opposed to the reverence we owe God, according to Ezekiel 28:2, "Thy heart is lifted up, and Thou hast said: I am God," and 1 Corinthians 4:7, "What hast thou that thou hast not received? And if thou hast received, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?" Or again when a man prefers to God the temporal good in which he glories: for this is forbidden (Jeremiah 9:23-24): "Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the strong man glory in his strength, and let not the rich man glory in his riches. But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth Me." Or again when a man prefers the testimony of man to God's; thus it is written in reproval of certain people (John 12:43): "For they loved the glory of men more than the glory of God."
In another way vainglory may be contrary to charity, on the part of the one who glories, in that he refers his intention to glory as his last end: so that he directs even virtuous deeds thereto, and, in order to obtain it, forbears not from doing even that which is against God. On this way it is a mortal sin. Wherefore Augustine says (De Civ. Dei v, 14) that "this vice," namely the love of human praise, "is so hostile to a godly faith, if the heart desires glory more than it fears or loves God, that our Lord said (John 5:44): How can you believe, who receive glory one from another, and the glory which is from God alone, you do not seek?"
If, however, the love of human glory, though it be vain, be not inconsistent with charity, neither as regards the matter gloried in, nor as to the intention of him that seeks glory, it is not a mortal but a venial sin.
According to the Book of Revelation 20.11-15, the dead in Christ will receive a perfect glorified body at the first resurrection; those saints alive will be transformed into a glorified perfect body. The second resurrection is for the white throne judgement. Those not resurrected in the first resurrection will be resurrected for judgement to include those born during the thousand-year kingdom. Those whose names do not appear in the book of life will be thrown in the lake of fire.
The manifestation of glory (upon a saint for example) is often depicted in iconography using the religious symbol of a halo. Other common symbols of glory include white robes, crowns, jewels, gold, and stars. The Coronation of the Virgin is one of the most common depictions of Mary in glory.
There are a number of specialised senses of "glory" in art, which all derive from French usages of "gloire". "Glory" was the medieval English word for a halo or aureole, and continues to be used sometimes in this sense, mostly for the full-body version. The subject of Christ in Majesty is also known as "Christ in Glory", and in general any depiction of a sacred person in heaven (e.g. in the clouds, surrounded by angels) can be called a "glory", although this sense is obsolete.
- ^Matthew 5:16
- ^The Catholic Encyclopedia, "Glory"
- ^Exodus 33:17-23
- ^Ezekiel 1:27-28
- ^Luke 2:8-10
- ^Luke 9:29-32 NKJV
- ^John 17:4-5
- ^The Catholic Encyclopedia - Glory
- ^ST, II-II, Q. 132, art. 1.
- ^Lewis, C.S. (2001). The Weight of Glory. HarperSanFrancisco. p. 36.
- ^ST, II-II, Q. 132, art. 4.
- ^In the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (late 19th century), entry no. 9b for "glory" ("A representation of the heavens opening and revealing celestial beings") was annotated "? Obs."
Receiving of Perfection
Receiving of the Resurrection Bodies
In his final prayer with his disciples, Jesus Christ prays for the mutual glorification of the Father and the Son. In John’s Gospel, Jesus is glorified when he is lifted up on the cross at his crucifixion. John employs a double meaning of lifted up throughout the Gospel, demonstrating that the crucifixion is also the exaltation of Jesus. After presenting the historical, canonical and theological background I will outline an exegesis, describing Jesus’ message and conclude with explaining how John intended the theme to be used and how it may be applied by the reader today.
A. Historical Background:
Crucifixion was an ancient form of punishment or execution that was widely practiced in antiquity. The victim was nailed or bound to a cross, or sometimes a stake or tree, until dead. It was used by the Medes and Persians under Darius, the Assyrians and by Alexander the Great. Josephus recorded its use during the Hasmonean dynasty and called it “one of the most barbarous actions in the world” (Ant 13.14.2). The use and severity of crucifixion was increased under the Romans. Cicero called it a “most cruel and disgusting penalty.” Crucifixion was the method of execution reserved for slaves (supplicium servile), traitors and the lowest classes. The cross was therefore a symbol of public humiliation and ignominy. Anyone who was crucified would have been considered the lowest of all to have suffered the shame and horror of such a brutal punishment. In Jewish thought, the crucified were considered to have been cursed by God (Deut 21:22-23; cf. 11QT 64:6-13).
B. Canonical Background:
Glory is the aspect of God that is worthy of praise, honour or respect. It is often associated with brightness or splendour in theophanies. The glory of God, his Shekinah שְׁכִינָה or divine Presence, dwelt or tabernacled with Israel during their wanderings in the wilderness (Exod 25:8; 40:34). It descended as a cloud and was like a ‘devouring fire’ on Mount Sinai (Exod 24:16-17). The glory of YHWH filled the tabernacle (Exod 40:34-38) and when the Jerusalem temple was dedicated, the cloud of God’s presence filled the temple (1 Kgs 8:11). God’s glory is also present in theophany (Isa 6:3; Ezek 43:2–5). The most common Hebrew word in the OT for glory is kāḇôḏ, meaning heavy, weighty or burdensome. Other words used are hāḏār (splendour – e.g. Ps 90:16) and hôḏ (God’s sovereignty – e.g. Ps 148:13 ). The Septuagint translates these words as dóxa, which is also the word used in the NT, and thereby adding the classical Greek meaning of reputation.
C. Theological Context:
The eschatological hope in the OT was for the whole earth to be covered with the glory of YHWH (Num 14:21; Ps 72:19; Isa 60:1-3; Hab 2:14). Beale argues that ‘The glory of God is the climax of the NT storyline,’ and is ‘the grand goal of the entirety of redemptive history.’ The Biblical narrative is moving to a time when God dwells ‘in a temple in a new creation.’ The sin of God’s people stops this movement, and a new eschatological move begins it again (e.g. Abraham, Israel, Moses, Solomon). This repeating cycle ends with the coming of Jesus. His ministry, death, resurrection, ascension and sending of the Holy Spirit inaugurates a new creation which will not end until Christ returns to create the new heaven and new earth. Carson notes that ‘the primary meaning of ‘to glorify’ is ‘to clothe in splendour’’(John 17:5). Because of the fall Adam was clothed in ‘garments of skin’ (Gen 3:21) rather than ‘garments of glory’ (Apoc. Mos. 20:1-2; cf. Exod 28).
Word Study – Glorified
John introduces the glory theme in the prologue to the Gospel. The Word, dwelt or tabernacled among the ‘witnesses of the new exodus’ just as God’s Shekinah had tabernacled with his people in the wilderness (1:14a; cf. Exod 25:8; Sir 24:8).   The glory (dóxa) of the Word is revealed to be that of the Father (1:14b). Jesus demonstrates his glory in the signs he performs (2:11; 11:4, 40). John writes that ultimately Jesus will be glorified at the cross, which is how Jesus referred to his approaching death (7:39; 12:16, 23; 13:31-32). Carson explains, ‘God’s splendour is displayed in the perfect obedience of the Son’s sacrifice.’ In the Synoptics, Jesus is glorified in the Resurrection, but for John it is at the cross.
Word Study – Lifted Up
John conveys two meanings of ‘lifted up’ (hypsoō) in his Gospel. Firstly, it refers to the method of crucifixion, Jesus was lifted up on the cross. There is an echo of the bronze serpent that was lifted up on a pole (Nu 21:4-9; cf. 3:14). The reference is emphasised in the Epistle of Barnabas:
And Moses made another representation of Jesus, showing that he must suffer and shall himself give life… Moses therefore made a graven serpent. (Epistle of Barnabas 12:5-7)
Secondly it means to exalt (3:14; 8:28; 12:32, 34). Carson writes, ‘The exaltation of Jesus by means of the cross is also the exaltation of Jesus on the cross.’ Beasley-Murray adds that the judgement of this world takes place when Jesus is lifted up (12:31-32). He is lifted up ‘via the cross to the throne of heaven.’ Isaiah also linked the double meaning of ‘lifted up’ with ‘exaltation’ when he prophesied about the suffering servant:
13 Behold, my servant shall act wisely;
he shall be high and lifted up,
and shall be exalted. (Isa 52:13).
A. John 17:1-5
Chapter 17 is at the end of the ‘Farewell Discourse’ in the upper room (John 13-17). The discourse covers the Last Supper, washing the disciples feet, Jesus’ final teaching and his final prayer. This chapter was called Jesus’ High Priestly Prayer by Lutheran theologian David Chyträus (1531-1600). The naming reflects Jesus’ role as an OT High Priest offering intercession for his disciples. Others have preferred the title given by Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901), the Prayer of Consecration, which emphasises v. 19. There are similarities to the final prayers of the patriarchs (e.g. Jacob Gen 49; Moses Deut 32-33; Abraham Jubilees 22:7-23), and to the closing passages in wisdom writings (Prov 9:1-18; Eccl 12:9-14; Sir 51:1-30). Although praying to the Father, Jesus is at the same time teaching his disciples. Cyril of Alexandria admires the smooth transition between Jesus speaking to his disciples and praying to the Father.
Jesus announces that the ‘hour’ has now come. This is the time when Jesus had predicted he would depart this world and return to the Father (2:4; 4:21, 23; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1). It was the time for the mutual glorification of the Son and the Father. Carson explains that the petition is asking for a reversal of the ‘self-emptying entailed in his incarnation’ (Phil 2:5-11). Jesus glorifies the Father by completing the work that he had been given to do. This was to make the Father known to the world, and to offer eternal life to those who believe. Beale writes, ‘Jesus’ entire life and ministry were for God’s glory.’ The cross finished the work that the Father had called Jesus to do (19:30) and it also revealed who Jesus was (8:28). In adding the inscription to the cross, Pilate ironically proclaimed that Jesus was ‘King of the Jews’ (19:19-22), in contrast to the Jewish leaders who gave glory to Caesar (19:15). Barclay comments that Jesus ‘glorified God on the cross by rendering the perfect obedience of perfect love.’ Jesus asked to be restored to the glory he had shared with the Father before the world began (1:1).
B. John 17:6-19
Jesus then goes on to pray for his disciples. In his prayer, Jesus explains that his disciples were given to him (vv. 6-10). Jesus is glorified in his disciples (v.10) in the same way that the Father is, when they carry out the work that they are called to do (cf. 2 Thess 1:12). Jesus’ public ministry is about to end, but the disciples will continue his ministry. In continuing his work, the disciples (and therefore all followers of Jesus) will glorify Jesus. Keener also points to Jesus being glorified in the sufferings of his disciples (21:19) and in their triumph over suffering (11:4). Since Jesus knows that they will face suffering when he is no longer with them, he prays for their protection as he sends them into the world (vv. 11-19).
C. John 17:20-26
Jesus concludes the prayer by extending it to cover all followers who may later believe in him because of the works of the disciples. His primary concern here is for unity among his followers (v. 21). Although not mentioned in this prayer, John’s letters reveal deep divisions within the Johannine communities. Beasley-Murray believes that John would have the struggle for unity in mind when he wrote the Gospel. The appeal for unity is a reflection of the unity between Father and Son, in order to be a sign to the world. Cyril describes this as ‘a bond of love, and concord, and peace, to bring into spiritual unity those who believe.’ Carson notes the disagreement in opinion about the glory given by Jesus in v. 22. He suggests it is for all believers and not just the original disciples. Jesus gives the glory to believers in order that they may glorify God, following the example of Jesus, even to the point of death (21:19). Keener notes how the world is divided, but that Jesus called his believers to be one with him and the Father in order to be a sign to the world. The glory of this ‘perfect communion’ is not to be turned inward, rather it is to witness to the false glory of the world (cf. Hab 2:14). The prayer is itself a witness to the reader of the divine unity present between the Father and Son.
A. Are we in unity with all believers – what would that look like? Jesus prayed that the believers may be one. John was perhaps conscious of the divisions he saw in the church. There are just as many if not more divisions among believers today. Unity does not necessarily mean institutional uniformity. There is great richness in the diversity of our traditions. But there must be something that we as individual believers could do to foster greater unity between Christians. The reason for unity is clear, so that the church may be a witness to the world, by demonstrating, being a living example of, the unity between Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Earlier in the Gospel Jesus said:
‘A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another: just as I have loved you, you also are to love one another. By this all people will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another’ (John 13:34–35).
B. Are we glorifying Jesus by carrying on his ministry? The disciples glorified Jesus by continuing his ministry. After Jesus had finished his earthly ministry they continued to carry out the works that he did. This task has passed through each generation of believers that followed and now remains today until Jesus returns (Matt 9:37-38; John 4:35). Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to help his followers do the works that that he did (14:15). Because he was returning to the Father he said his followers would actually do ‘greater works’ than he did (14:12). As believers we should look for ways to carry on the ministry of Jesus using the talents we have been given (15:8).
C. Are we glorifying God in what we do now? The answer to question 1 in the Westminster Larger Catechism states, ‘Man’s chief and highest end is to glorify God and fully to enjoy him forever.’ The prayer of Jesus in John 17 advocates the same aim for humanity, that is to glorify God in all that we do. This then becomes the imperative for all believers who seek to follow the teachings of Jesus. It is all too easy for us to enjoy ourselves and Creation more than we enjoy God. But to be fully human is to be clothed in the garments of God’s glory. Creation is to be enjoyed, but God is to be glorified and enjoyed more. If this is the goal of the entirety of redemptive history then we should ensure that we glorify God in all that we do.
D. Are we obedient to our calling? Jesus was obedient to the point of death on the cross. The exaltation that Jesus received was not that which the world gives. To be obedient we must first listen to God to discern our calling. Then through prayer and with the counsel of other believers we should work out our calling with ‘fear and trembling’ (Phil 2:12). At all times trying to emulate the example of Christ’s humility. Jesus calls his disciples to take up their cross and follow him (Matt 16:24-26). By completing the work that we are called to do we will glorify Jesus and the Father.
In John’s Gospel Jesus is glorified by his death on the cross, and restored to the pre-incarnation glory he had in the beginning. The cross, a symbol of public humiliation reserved for the lowest and cursed, became the instrument through which Jesus was glorified. Jesus was physically lifted up at the crucifixion and was also exalted. In completing the work set for him, Jesus glorified the Father. He prayed that his disciples would likewise glorify the Father and the Son and so too would all believers who were to follow. Jesus prayed for the unity of all believers in order that they may demonstrate the glory of God to the world. John’s message can be applied to believers today.
Barclay, William. The Gospel of John, Volume 2; The Daily Study Bible. Edinburgh: The Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
Beale, G. K. A New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2011.
Beasley-Murray, George R. John; Word Biblical Commentary. Vol. 36. Dallas, TX: Word, Incorporated, 2002.
Carson, D. A. The Gospel According to John. Leicester: Apollos, 1991.
Cyril of Alexandria, Archbishop. Commentary on the Gospel According to St John: Volume II. London: Walter Smith, 1885.
Donahue, John R. “Crucifixion.” Pages 298–299 in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers and Astrid B. Beck. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2000.
Gwaltney Jr, Darrell D., and Ralph W. Vunderink. “Glory.” Pages 507-508 in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers and Astrid B. Beck. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2000.
John of Taizé, Brother. The Adventure of Holiness: Biblical Foundations and Present-Day Perspectives. New York: Alba House, 1999.
Josephus, Flavius. Josephus: The Complete Works. Translated by William Whiston. Nasville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1998.
Keener, Craig S. The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume Two. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012.
Keener, Craig S. The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume One. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012.
Kelly, Anthony J., and Francis J. Moloney. Experiencing God in the Gospel of John. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2003.
Kugel, James L. Traditions of the Bible: A Guide to the Bible As It Was at the Start of the Common Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Scott, J. Martin C. “John.” Pages 1161-1212 in Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Edited by James D. G. Dunn and John W. Rogerson. Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2003.
Smalley, Stephen. John : Evangelist and Interpreter. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1983.
 John R. Donahue, “Crucifixion,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (ed. David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers and Astrid B. Beck; Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2000), 298.
 Flavius Josephus, Josephus: The Complete Works (Nasville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1998), 433)
 Donahue, “Crucifixion,” 298.
 Ibid., 298.
 Darrell D. Gwaltney Jr and Ralph W. Vunderink, “Glory,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (ed. David Noel Freedman, Allen C. Myers and Astrid B. Beck; Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2000), 507.
 Theophany is the appearance of God, where God reveals himself to individuals or in a vision.
 Gwaltney and Vunderink, “Glory,” 507.
 Ibid., 507.
 G. K. Beale, A New Testament Biblical Theology: The Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2011), 958.
 Ibid., 960.
 D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Leicester: Apollos, 1991), 554.
 James L. Kugel, Traditions of the Bible: A Guide to the Bible As It Was at the Start of the Common Era (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 114-120.
 The Word, lógos λόγος, is the pre-existent Jesus who is God incarnate (John 1:1-5).
 Craig S. Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume One (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012), 409.
 Gwaltney and Vunderink, “Glory,” 508.
 Stephen Smalley, John : Evangelist and Interpreter (Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1983), 220.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 482.
 Stephen Smalley, John, 221.
 Kugel, Traditions of the Bible, 816.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 345.
 George R. Beasley-Murray, John; Word Biblical Commentary 36 (Dallas, TX: Word, Incorporated, 2002), vol. 36, 213.
 Ibid., 214.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 444.
 Craig S Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume Two (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012), 1051.
 The Aaronic High Priest was clothed in garments of glory (Exod 28:2).
 Beasley-Murray, John, 294.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 551.
 J. Martin C. Scott, “John,” in Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn and John W. Rogerson; Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2003), 1201.
 Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on the Gospel According to St John: Volume II (London: Walter Smith, 1885), 478.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 554.
 Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on the Gospel According to St John: Volume II, 491.
 Anthony J. Kelly and Francis J. Moloney, Experiencing God in the Gospel of John (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2003), 334.
 Scott, “John,” 1201.
 Beale, A New Testament Biblical Theology, 960.
 Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume Two, 1055.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 345.
 William Barclay, The Gospel of John, Volume 2; The Daily Study Bible (Edinburgh: The Saint Andrew Press, 1975), 207.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 557.
 Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume Two, 1057.
 Ibid., 1057.
 Brother John of Taizé, The Adventure of Holiness: Biblical Foundations and Present-Day Perspectives (New York: Alba House, 1999), 91.
 Beasley-Murray, John, 307.
 Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on the Gospel According to St John: Volume II, 546.
 Carson, The Gospel According to John, 559.
 Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary Volume Two, 1063.
 Ibid., 1061.
 Kelly and Moloney, Experiencing God in the Gospel of John, 347.
 John of Taizé, The Adventure of Holiness, 90.
 Beale, A New Testament Biblical Theology, 961.
Filed Under: Essays, Jesus, New TestamentTagged With: Cross, Crucifixion, Gospel of John, Jesus