Law 122 Ethical Reasoning Assignment Notebook

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...Excellent analysis and explanation of the 6 stages of moral reasoning. You demonstrate your understanding and application of the concepts/ Moral Reasoning By Christopher M Benco 02/18/2013 PHL/323 Kohlberg defines moral reasoning to be decisions based on right and wrong. Kohlberg’s studies were founded on moral dilemmas, or theoretical events in which one must make a tough choice. He describes one’s stage of moral thought from the perceptive used to defend one’s situation while confronted with a predicament. Kohlberg believed this to be of greater importance than the actual choice, subsequently the choices one makes in some predicaments are not always clear or undeniably right. Here is an Example of a Dilemma Kohlberg studied. “Heinz Steals the Drug” "In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I......

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Ethical Reasoning Assignment

...1. The ethical issue here was that Lehman’s executives exploited loopholes in the accounting standards to manipulate their balance sheet in order to mislead the investing public. Using “Repo 105”, Lehman was able to clear huge amount unprofitable assets off its balance sheet instead of selling at loss. Evidence pointed out that the chief executive, Richard Ruld, knew about the use of it but faked ignorance in defence. Even the auditors from Ernst and Young knew about the use of the suspicious Repo 105 but chose to keep quiet. I believe that the prime motivation behind the act was to retain investors’ confidence by preventing a plummet in stock price. Hence, the implication was that Lehman was projecting a false image of its strong financial position, meaning that its stock price was overvalued. Through falsified accounting reports, investors were tricked into believing that their investments were safe, incurring huge losses when Lehman defaulted. Investors lost faith. The consequences were devastating as it created a systemic crisis of confidence in the banking industry as all other banks froze lending to reduce their exposure of Lehman’s undesirable Repo 105. Lehman’s employees suffered too as they lost their jobs overnight. 2. After extensive research, it was apparent that a written “Code of Ethics” was present at Lehman Brothers. However, for an ethics code to be effective, the tone at the top executives needs to be set right so that the entire organisation can feel......

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Ethical Law Enforcement

...Abstein Professor: Ortiz Patrol Functions 2 December 2012 Ethical Law Enforcement I chose this subject because I feel that before embarking on a career in law enforcement it is fundamental to understand how to play by the book without getting ostracized by ones peers. The purpose of this paper is to outline proper behavior while paying attention to factors that will effectively limit corruption. The law enforcement oath of honor is as follows. “On my honor, I will never betray my badge, my integrity, my character, or the public trust. I will always have the courage to hold myself and others accountable for our actions. I will always uphold the constitution my community and the agency I serve.” On a daily basis police officers risk their lives to protect citizens and defend liberty. It is a noble and selfless occupation that makes a difference in the quality of life. Before taking the Law Enforcement Oath of Honor it is important to comprehend its meaning. Honor, means your word is given as a guarantee, Betray is breaking faith with the public trust, Badge is your symbol of office, Integrity is adhering to the same code of conduct in private life and public duty, Character is distinguishing qualities of an individual, Public Trust is the faith of those you serve that your conduct will be ethical, Courage is strength against danger fear and non-ethical pressure, Accountability You answer to the office of your oath and are......

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Law: Ethical Reasoning

...LAW122 Essay On Ethical Reasoning Emma Kiani-Oskoi 500511475 The issue that is concerned with the party named Martha raises both an ethical and legal aspect of law. As stated in the “Fact Pattern and Question” Bob had promised Martha a referral fee of $1000 as a way of thanking her for putting Raj in contact with him. This is technically referred to as a gratuitous promise from Bob that is not considered a contract due to the fact that it is not contain legally enforceable rights and obligations. Martha did not agree with the fact that Bob did not keep his word, and began to “grumble about Bob at the TBREA” stating slander at networking events. She had affected Bob’s reputation as a businessman by speaking out about him in the Toronto Builders and Real Estate Association (TBREA), an industry organization where your representation is important. If Bob were to find out about these statements that were said about him at a networking event, he would be able to sue Martha for slander of title, and malice. Slander is a “defamatory statement that is spoken” (McInnes, 2014) about a party. Defamation is considered as any uncomplimentary statement that could hurt someone’s reputation. The repercussions for this action can be serious, and could create a loss for Bob that Martha would be responsible for. Remedy for such an action could result in compensation or personal distress. This is could become a case of Injurious Falsehood for Martha. Although Martha may have thought this......

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Influence of Moral Reasoning

...Influence of Moral Reasoning Mark R. Mitchell CRT/205 December 1, 2013 Rahana Schmalacker Influence of Moral Reasoning In accordance with this assignment to choose a person that is involved with the article chosen from the Opposing Viewpoint Resource Center, The article that I chose was “Superintendent, principal and two coaches charged in fallout from Steubenville student rape”, and the person that I chose was the Ohio State Attorney General. As to the actions taken by the attorney general was to charge four more adults with crimes that relate to the student rape case. This occurring after the Grand Jury spent eight months investigating the case. The four include two coaches, the principle, and the Steubenville School Superintendent, the charges range from tampering and obstruction to failing to reporting child abuse. Henceforth the impact of these actions is the four will be held over for trial and possibly result in serving time in prison or be acquitted of these crimes. Additionally if I were the attorney general I feel that I would also bring these charges and prosecute to the fullest extent that the law would allow. I would also use this to show that there should not be a place in any school system in the country that the lack of action to protect children entrusted to their care will not be tolerated, and the......

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Ethical Issues in Employment Law

...Ethical Issues in Employment Law Ethical Issues in Employment Law Employment discrimination is illegal. Or is it? The answer is, yes and no. Employers may not discriminate against employees on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin due to a civil rights bill passed by John F. Kennedy in 1963, otherwise known as Title VII. Employers may, however, discriminate if there is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ). For example, a clothier who only sells women’s clothing may only want to hire female models to show their clothes to potential buyers; a company like GNC (General Nutrition Center) may only want to hire employees who are fit and know about fitness products to become salespeople in their stores. An Act of Law that followed in 1978 is the Pregnancy Discrimination Act which states employers or potential employers cannot discriminate against women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Although this Act exists, this type of discrimination happens often. In July of 1999, I changed jobs and accepted a position at Merrill Lynch here in Denver. In September of that year, I found out, and announced to my employer, that I was expecting and due the next May. The following month, my boss called me into the office and a Human Resources representative was also present. After exchanging a few pleasantries, I found out that I was being let go because I had a forgery charge on my criminal history that I did not disclose on my application. I told......

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Reasoning

...Quantitative Reasoning 1. Create two sets.  Set A will be the list of the five items you personally need to buy the most (essential items).  Set B will be the list of the five items that you want to buy the most (fun stuff).  ANSWER: A = {CAR, GAS, WATER, FOOD, HOUSE} B = {CAR, COMPUTER, IPOD, HOUSE, TV} 2. List the items in Set A and Set B, and also list or state the items in the union and in the intersection of Set A and Set B. ANSWER: UNION = {CAR, GAS, WATER, FOOD, HOUSE, COMPUTER, IPOD, TV} INTERSECTION = {CAR, HOUSE} 3. Now assume that the prices of the items in your set A are 20, 40, 60, 70 and 80. Assume that the prices of the items in your set B are 90, 120, 30, 60 and 40. Note: if you have one or two identical items in both sets, then assume that the prices of the identical items are the same as the prices that appear in set A (instead of having two different prices to the same item.) ANSWER: A = {(CAR, $20) (GAS, $40) (WATER, $60) (FOOD, $70) (HOUSE, $80)} B = {(CAR, $20) (COMPUTER, $90) (IPOD, $120) (HOUSE, $80) (TV, $30)} 4. What will the total cost of Set A be if it contains one unit of each item? ANSWER: $270 5. What will the total cost of the union set be if it contains one unit of each item? ANSWER: UNION SET = $20 + $40 + $60 + $70 + $120 + $80 +$30 = $420 6. What will be the total cost of the intersection? ANSWER: ...

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Ethical Issues Arising from the Intersection of Law, Compliance & Investigations

...There are several ethical issues that arise in information security. The security is one of most issue of concern for every business organization. Ethics is a term which is used to distinguish between right or wrong things. Ethical issues in computer security includes cybercrimes, computer hacking and information warfare. In an Internet world, many banking organizations are attacked by attackers and millions of credit card details stolen every day. Cybercrimes such as credit card fraud cases, accessing someone’s account, stealing user credentials from social networking sites and sharing copyright information illegally. There are several Information Technology laws such as intellectual property laws, privacy laws and computer crime laws. The law that is enforced for employee workplace communication environment is under fact sheet 7, 2012, Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Computer Security Act of 1987 (PL 100-235) and Computer Matching and Privacy Act which deals with securing of personal information that are stored in federal computer systems. This law is responsible for planning of security standards for protecting data against theft. Resolving Ethical issues It is the responsibility of security professionals to follow ethical codes and conducts for providing maximum security to an organization. These security professionals assure safety and reliability. In order to resolve these ethical issues a proper security plan has to be made and implemented in which every member of......

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Ethical and Critical Thinking Law

... Carl was advising the client about alimony, fees, and other matters, which crossed the line on practicing law. (NFPA EC-1.8(a) A paralegal shall comply with the applicable legal authority governing the unauthorized practice of law in the jurisdiction in which the paralegal practices) ABA 5.5 Carl allowed the friend of the client to possibly see names and information on Attorney Howe’s desk. (NFPA 1.5 A PARALEGAL SHALL PRESERVE ALL CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE CLIENT OR ACQUIRED FROM OTHER SOURCES BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER THE COURSE OF THE PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP.) ABA 1.6 When Jane and Zeke walk through the reception area, Carl starts talking loudly about the case, mentioning alimony—another breach of confidentiality. (NFPA 1.5 A PARALEGAL SHALL PRESERVE ALL CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE CLIENT OR ACQUIRED FROM OTHER SOURCES BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER THE COURSE OF THE PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP.) ABA 1.6 Comments: Carl did not follow the rules of a paralegal. He was not upfront with Jane on being a Paralegal not a Attorney act out as a Attorney. He also allowed a third party in the room with Jane and himself breaking the confidentiality laws, as well as allowing the person to be behind a desk where other clients information was out in the open. He gives her advice about getting alimony from her husband. He breaks the confidentiality law again advises her in the waiting room about alimony...

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Law 421 Week 2 Legal and Ethical Issues

...Legal and Ethical Issues Summary CadMex is in Florida and markets its product in 127 countries around the world. I am attempting to coordinate the contractual terms between CadMex Pharma and Gentura. Gentura is a biotechnology company based in Candore, which is known for ProPez, which is a breakthrough medication for anti-diabetes. The company does not have the abilities to produce globally, and CadMex is attempting to negotiate a partnership. Some issues to consider in resolving disputes in international transactions would be selection of local counsel, understanding of unique aspects of local law, conduction due diligence, effective tax and other structuring issues, competition law issues, purchase price issues, choice of law/dispute resolutions, master/local agreements, language and cultural issues, and managing the task (Peter, 2014). In a world of rapid growth and expansion business have an established method of resolving disputes quickly, efficiently and constructively known as arbitration. Nickerson (2005), "Arbitration is a voluntary process of dispute resolution where a neutral third party renders a final and binding decision after each side has an opportunity to present its view." When it came to CadMex Pharma having to deal with the idea that Gentura is bound by and coincides with the laws of Candore. Gentura is more obligated to its country of residence. Very few laws of the United States will have any matter in this country. A main issue that could......

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Business Ethics and Ethical Reasoning

...Business Ethics and Ethical Reasoning Managers are faced with daily decisions to ensure that they are leading by example in their managerial position. Managers must make sure their actions are fair, honorable, and reasonable to employees and customers is the groundwork of good ethical decision making. In today’s society ethical issues are becoming extremely complicated because of global and diversification in corporations. A broad explanation of diversity stems from personality and work style to all the visible dimensions such as age, race, ethnicity, or gender and to also to be influenced by religion, social economics and education (Lockwood, 2005). In this paper, I will describe moral and ethical issues faced by managers; explain the relationship between social issues and ethically responsible management practices apply to diversity; an example of a workplace diversity ethical dilemmas and the legal aspects management face while dealing with the issue. In addition to legalities governed or should be governed. Managers have a reasonable ethical duty to uphold the policy and the procedures of the company, so their ethical and morality is essential to employees. Managers are faced with various issues such as: diversity, work ethics, and discipline. However, diversity plays a major role in how an organization which can exemplifies that they are a company that can be open to an assortment of employees within the organization. According to Thomas (1992), dimensions of workplace...

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A Fire in the Global Village: Teaching Ethical Reasoning and Stakeholder Interests Utilizing Tobacco

...A Fire in the Global Village: Teaching Ethical Reasoning and Stakeholder Interests Utilizing Tobacco Lucien J. Dhooge Sue and John Staton Professor of Law Journal of Legal Studies Education Volume 29, Issue 1, pages 95–125, Winter / Spring 2012 [T]is a plague, a mischief, a violent purger of goods, lands, health; hellish, devilish and damned tobacco, the ruin and overthrow of body and soul.( Richard Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), quoted in Philip J. Hilts, Smokescreen 185 (1996)) I. Introduction Tobacco has been an agricultural staple from the time of the first recorded European encounter with the plant in the fifteenth century.2 The pervasive nature of its cultivation and consumption has made tobacco one of the most profitable crops in world agricultural history.3 World production is estimated at thirteen billion pounds annually, originating in more than one hundred countries.4 This production has flourished, in part, due to the demand for cigarettes, the leading form of tobacco consumed in the global marketplace. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 1.2 billion people over the age of fifteen are regular cigarette smokers.5 In developed countries, 35 percent of men and 22 percent of women smoke cigarettes on a regular basis.6 In developing countries, 50 percent of men and 9 percent of women smoke cigarettes on a regular basis.7 Globally, smokers consume 5.5 trillion cigarettes every year, which translates into a consumption rate of one......

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Veteran's Law - It Is Ethical

...regulation at a later date. This process gives the public a significant opportunity to take part in the rulemaking. The process of opening refuges is done in stages; the public will be given other opportunities to make comments. Once the deadline date has expired, the document will be published in the Federal Register for additional comments. Those who made comments on the rule during the proposal stage will challenge the validity of the rule in court. b. If the proposal passes, identify and explain the five legal theories you could use in an attempt to have the regulation declared invalid and overturned in court. 1. The first ground on which to challenge a rule Arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or in violation of some law. 2. The regulation is unsupported by substantial evidence. The substantial evidence test is applied in the review of formal and hybrid rulemaking. Where the arbitrary and capricious standard requires bases for the regulation, evidence requires that more convincing evidence exist in support of the regulation than being against it. 3. A regulation can be set aside if the agency did not apply with the APA requirements of notice, publication, and public comment or input. The procedures of rulemaking must be followed in order for the regulatory process and resulting rules to be valid. Any agency that seeks public comment for the purpose of drafting legislation cannot then turn the legislation into rules after the comment......

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Ethical Reasoning

...Answer: If there isn’t a confidentiality breech, then yes Billy should call his friend. The suggested actions should be honesty and be upfront to both parties, such as Call Tick and Check and ask for an extension, and then call Foot and Balance and ask about the offer status. The reasons behind this is to maintain your honesty, reliability, and integrity. #2 Question: Is it ever right to back out of a promise? Answer: Yes it is okay to back out of a promise if the end result causes harm. Ethical reasoning being used is reliability, because there is a moral duty to keep promises, but one must avoid bad-faith excuses and unwise commitments. #3 Question: Identify stakeholders and their interests. Answer: Both companies would be a stakeholder because both companies have a business interest of obtaining an ethical employee. However, Billy in this case, would just have self-interest rather than being a stakeholder. #4 Question: What are the alternatives using ethical reasoning? Answer: Two alternatives would be conformity and self-interest. Conformity in this case would allow Billy to keep his promise to Tick and Check, and then explain the situation to Foot and Balance to keep good relations. Self- interest in this case would have Billy accept the Foot and Balance offer, and then hope that Tick and Check will find a better candidate for the job position quickly....

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Ab105 Ethical Reasoning

...AB105 Organizational Behavior & DesignEthical Reasoning Assignment Summary Page The issue arises as Wellness Village; a spa operator who collected prepayment from its customers suddenly terminated its business without prior notice, leaving its customers and credit-issuing banks in great loss. The customers did not receive the service they supposed to get from Wellness Village and as a result, the bank faced credit risks that some credit customers refused to pay. The owners knew the closed-down of the spa beforehand, but they still sold prepaid packages dishonestly. A concern is thus raised whether the owners and managers of a business are ethically right to ignore their responsibility and integrity in the pursuit of self interests and benefits, which could impose potential damages and losses to customers or other related stakeholders. Businesses have evolved into many distinctive forms, but for all of them the goal to maximise their profit is nevertheless in common. This everlasting aim of business is more or less in line with ethical egoism theory that ‘it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximises one's self-interest’ (The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2010). According to this theory, the spa owners’ irresponsible and dishonest act was ethically correct and should be encouraged. Contrastingly, in the view of Ethical Altruism, such act is definitely unethical as it states ‘only actions having for their object the happiness......

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2[Type text] [Type text] [Type text] Ellie and Guy are business owners with different specialties. Ellie makes clothes and requires unusual materials and Guy specializes in ‘high quality, hard to find fabrics’ 1 , so they agree on a price and delivery. When Guy realizes his supplier raised the price, he asked Ellie if she could pay more. Ellie agrees to pay the higher price so her business relationship is not ruined, but later fails to pay the promised price because her sales drop. When Guy brings it up, Ellie refuses to pay because she is obligated to their original price. Due to the parties only making an agreement, it becomes a gratuitous promise, a promise for which nothing of legal value is given in exchange 2 , and the ethical reasoning being fairness and justice, which states, “we should pay our debts and treat like cases alike” 3 . Regarding to legality, Ellie promised to pay for the price increment but she failed

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