Kaire Mbuende Bibliography

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (January 1, 1964-July 3, 1964):  On January 1, 1964, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved.  Southern Rhodesia had previously joined Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi) to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland on August 1, 1953.  On April 13, 1964, Ian Smith succeeded Winston Field as prime minister of Southern Rhodesia and leader of the Rhodesian Front (RF).

Crisis Phase (July 4, 1964-April 27, 1966):  African nationalists (the “Crocodile Gang”) ambushed and killed Pieter Johan Andries Oberholzer, a foreman at the Silverstreams Wattle Company, on July 4, 1964.  Prime Minister Ian Smith ordered the arrest and detention of the leaders of the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), including the Reverend Ndabaningi and Robert Mbellarmine Mugabe, on August 26, 1964.  Prime Minister Smith Ian requested independence for Southern Rhodesia during meetings in London on September 7-10, 1964.  Prime Minister Harold Wilson of Britain warned against a unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia on October 27, 1964.  White residents of Southern Rhodesia voted overwhelmingly for independence from Britain in a referendum on November 5, 1964.  The Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), the military wing of the ZAPU, was established by Jason Ziyaphapha Moyo in Zambia 1964.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 7, 1965, and the RF won 50 out of 65 seats in the House of Assembly.  The National People’s Party (NPP) won ten seats in the House of Assembly.  Prime Minister Smith demanded independence for Southern Rhodesia during meetings in London on October 4-8, 1965, but the British government refused the demand for independence.  Prime Minister Ian Smith unilaterally declared Southern Rhodesia’s independence on November 11, 1965.  The United Nations (UN) General Assembly condemned the Rhodesian government on November 11, 1965. The U.S. government condemned the Rhodesian government, and imposed diplomatic sanctions (non-recognition) against the Rhodesian government on November 11, 1965.  The Canadian government refused to recognize the independence of Rhodesia on November 11, 1965.  The Zambian government mobilized troops near the border with Rhodesia on November 12-24, 1965.  The governments of India and Ceylon imposed diplomatic sanctions (non-recognition) against the Rhodesian government on November 12, 1965.  The governments of West Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Israel, Japan, and Turkey imposed diplomatic sanctions (non-recognition) against the Rhodesian government.  The UN Security Council condemned the Rhodesian government on November 12 and November 19, 1965.  The Australian government imposed diplomatic sanctions (non-recognition) against the Rhodesian government on November 16, 1965. The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (voluntary arms embargo) and economic sanctions (oil embargo) against the Rhodesian government on November 20, 1965.  The British government imposed economic sanctions (assets feeeze) against the Rhodesian government on December 3, 1965, and the British government imposed additional economic sanctions (trade restrictions) against the Rhodesian government on December 12, 1965.  The British government imposed additional economic sanctions (oil embargo) against the Rhodesian government on December 17, 1965.  The Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), the military wing of the ZANU, was established in Tanzania in 1965.  The government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) provided military assistance (military training) to ZANU, while the government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (military training) to ZAPU.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions against the Rhodesian government on March 18, 1966.

Conflict Phase (April 28, 1966-December 21, 1979):  Rhodesian government troops attacked Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) rebels in Sinoia (Chinhoyi) on April 28, 1966, resulting in the deaths of seven ZANLA rebels.  ZANLA rebels killed two white Rhodesian farmers near Hartley (Chegutu) on May 16, 1966.  On December 1-3, 1966, Prime Minister Wilson of Britain and Prime Minister Ian Smith met on a warship off Gibraltar to discuss the matter of Rhodesian independence, but the parties failed to come to an agreement.  The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (mandatory arms embargo) and economic sanctions (selective trade restrictions and oil embargo) against the Rhodesian government on December 16, 1966.  ZIPRA rebels, along with South African African National Congress (ANC) insurgents, clashed with Rhodesian government troops near Wankie (Hwange) in northwestern Rhodesia from August 13 to mid-September 1967, resulting in the deaths of some 25 ZIPRA rebels, 25 ANC insurgents, and eight Rhodesian military personnel.  The South African government deployed 2,000 paramilitary police in support of the Rhodesian government beginning in August 1967.  ZIPRA rebels, along with South African African National Congress (ANC) insurgents, clashed with Rhodesian government troops in Sipolilo District from March 18 to April 10, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 55 ZIPRA rebels, 23 ANC insurgents, and eight Rhodesian military personnel.  The UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions (comprehensive trade restrictions) against the Rhodesian government on May 29, 1968.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the Rhodesian government on May 29, 1968.  ZAPU rebels clashed with Rhodesian government troops (as well as South African paramilitary policemen) on July 12-13, 1968, resulting in the deaths of at least 39 rebels and one South African paramilitary personnel.  Prime Minister Wilson and Prime Minister Smith met again on a warship off Gibraltar from October 9 to October 13, 1968, but again failed to come to an agreement.  A draft constitution for Rhodesia was approved in a referendum held on June 20, 1969, and the constitution went into effect on September 11, 1969.  Prime Minister Ian Smith proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia, and Clifford Dupont was chosen as acting president on March 2, 1970.  The government of the Soviet Union condemned the Rhodesian government on March 7, 1970.  On March 17, 1970, the U.S. and British governments vetoed a resolution in the UN Security Council that would have imposed additional mandatory sanctions against the Rhodesian government.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 10, 1970, and the Rhodesian Front (RF) won 50 out of 66 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Rhodesia Electoral Union (REU) won eight seats in the House of Assembly.  Clifford Dupont was elected as president by the House of Assembly on April 14, 1970.  The Front for the Liberation of Zimbabwe (FROLIZI) was established by dissident members of the ZAPU and ZANU on October 1, 1970.  The African National Council (ANC) led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa was established on December 16, 1971.  After three Zambians were killed by landmines near the border with Rhodesia on January 11, 1973, the Zambian government mobilized troops along the border on January 12, 1973.  The Kenyan government condemned the Rhodesian government on January 12, 1973.  The Egyptian government condemned the Rhodesian government on January 23, 1973.  Three more Zambians were killed by landmines near the border on January 26, 1973, and the UN Security Council condemned the Rhodesian government on February 2, 1973.  On May 22, 1973, the U.S. and British governments vetoed a resolution in the UN Security Council to extend mandatory sanctions against the Rhodesian government. Some 179 rebels, 44 Rhodesian military personnel, and twelve white civilians were killed in clashes in Rhodesia in 1973.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 30, 1974, and the RF won 50 out of 66 seats in the House of Assembly.  The ANC boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Prime Minister John Vorster of South Africa and President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia attempted to mediate between the parties from December 1974 to August 1975.  The Zambian government hosted negotiations involving representatives of the Rhodesian government, ZAPU, ZANU, FROLIZI, and ANC in Lusaka, Zambia on December 8-9,1974.  On December 9, 1974, the leaders of the four African nationalist groups (ZAPU, ZANU, FROLIZI, and ANC) signed the Lusaka Declaration, providing for the establishment of the Rhodesian political party United African National Council (UANC) headed by Bishop Abel Muzorewa.  Niall MacDermot, secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), conducted a fact-finding mission in Rhodesia on October 17-23, 1975. The ICJ isued a report on December 17, 1975.  John Wrathall was inaugurated as president on January 14, 1976.  U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties from April 25, 1976 to September 24, 1976, when Prime Minister Ian Smith announced that he accepted Henry Kissinger’s proposal for majority rule in Rhodesia within two years.  Rhodesian government troops attacked a ZANLA rebel base near Nyadzonya, Mozambique on August 9, 1976, resulting in the deaths of 1,028 individuals.  ZANU and ZAPU rebel military units merged to form the Patriotic Front (PF) on October 9, 1976.  The British government mediated negotiations involving representatives of the Rhodesian government, ZANU, ZAPU, FROLIZI, and ANC in Geneva, Switzerland from October 28 to December 14, 1976.  The Organization of Front Line States (OFLS) decided to provide military assistance to PF rebels on January 9, 1977. Rhodesian troops and PF rebels clashed near Chiredzi in southeast Rhodesia on May 9, 1977, resulting in the deaths of 35 civilians and one rebel.  On May 30, 1977, Rhodesia government troops attacked ZANLA rebels in Mapai, Mozambique, resulting in the deaths of 32 ZANLA rebels and one Rhodesian military personnel.  The UN secretary-general and the governments of the U.S. Britain, and the Soviet Union condemned the Rhodesian government on June 1, 1977. The UN Security Council condemned the Rhodesian government on June 30, 1977.  Rhodesian military aircraft attacked ZAPU rebels near Feira, Zambia on August 31, 1977.  Parliamentary elections were held on August 31, 1977, and the RF won 50 out of 66 seats in the House of Assembly. On September 29, 1977, the UN Security Council approved a resolution calling upon the UN secretary-general to appoint a UN Special Representative to assist in “the transition to majority rule in Southern Rhodesia.”  On October 3, 1977, Lt. General Dewan Prem Chand of India was appointed as UN Special Representative to Rhodesia.  Rhodesian government troops attacked ZANLA rebels near Chimoio and Tembue, Mozambique on November 23-25, 1977, resulting in the deaths of more than 3,000 ZANLA rebels and two Rhodesian military personnel.  Rhodesian government troops attacked ZAPU rebels in Gwembe Valley in Zambia on January 30-31, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals.  Rhodesian government troops attacked ZAPU rebels in Gwembe Valley in Zambia on February 7, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels and eight Zambian government soldiers.  On March 3, 1978, Prime Minister Ian Smith and Bishop Abel Muzorewa of the United African National Council (UANC) signed an agreement providing for African majority rule.  Rhodesian government troops attacked a ZAPU base in Luangwa District in Zambia on March 6-8, 1978, resulting in the deaths of 42 ZAPU rebels, ten Zambian government soldiers, and one Rhodesian government soldier.  The UN secretary-general and the Kenyan government condemned the Rhodesian government on March 8, 1978.  On March 17, 1978, the UN Security Council condemned Rhodesia’s recent attacks against ZAPU rebel bases in Zambia.  A three-member Executive Council consisting of Prime Minister Smith, Bishop Muzorewa, Chief Jeremiah Chirau, and Reverend Ndabaningi Sithole was established on March 21, 1978.  The government lifted the ban on the ZAPU and ZANU on May 2, 1978.  Three International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) personnel were killed by PF rebels on May 18, 1978.  Rhodesian government troops and PF rebels clashed near Dombashawa on June 10, 1978, resulting in the deaths of 22 civilians. OAU foreign ministers expressed support for PF rebels on July 18, 1978, and OAU heads-of-state expressed support for PF rebels on July 22, 1978. Rhodesian government troops attacked ZAPU rebels in Zambia on July 23, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 150 individuals.  The WCC provided humanitarian assistance to the PF on August 10, 1978.  President John Wrathall died on August 31, 1978, and Lt. Colonel Henry Everard became acting-president on September 1, 1978.  The government imposed martial law in parts of the country beginning on September 10, 1978.  Rhodesian government troops and military aircraft attacked several ZAPU bases near Lusaka, Zambia on October 19-21, 1978, resulting in the deaths of at least 226 ZAPU rebels, 37 Zambian soldiers, and one Rhodesian military personnel.  The government of India condemned the Rhodesian government on October 24, 1978, and the government of Angola condemned the Rhodesian government on October 26, 1978.  President Wrathall resigned on November 1, 1978, and Jack Pithey became acting-president on November 2, 1978.  The Swedish government decided to provide additional humanitarian assistance to ZANU and ZAPU on November 10, 1978.  The UN General Assembly approved a resolution condemning the transitional Rhodesian government on December 13, 1978.  A new constitution was approved by the National Assembly on January 20, 1979, and the constitution was approved in a referendum on January 30, 1979.  Rhodesian military aircraft attacked ZAPU rebels near Livingstone and Lusaka, Zambia on February 17-23, 1979, resulting in the deaths of 18 individuals.  The OAU foreign ministers condemned the Rhodesian government on March 1, 1979, and the UN Security Council condemned the Rhodesian government on March 8, 1979.  Rhodesian government troops and military aircraft attacked ZAPU rebels near Lusaka and Mulungushi, Zambia on April 10-14, 1979, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals.  The Cuban government condemned the Rhodesian government on April 14, 1979.  The OAU and the British government condemned the Rhodesian government on April 15, 1979.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 10-20, 1979, and the United African National Council (UANC) won 51 out of 100 seats in the House of Assembly,  The Rhodesian Front (RF) won 28 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Patriotic Front (PF) boycotted the parliamentary elections.  On April 26, 1979, the OAU declared the Rhodesian elections null and void.  The UN Security Council condemned the Rhodesian elections on April 30, 1979.  The Rhodesian parliament was dissolved on May 4, 1979, and the new parliament was sworn in on May 8, 1979.  The Rhodesian parliament elected Josiah Gumede as president on May 28, 1979, and Bishop Abel Muzorewa of the UANC formed a government as prime minister on May 29, 1979.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) had announced its refusal to recognize the government of Prime Minister Muzorewa on May 26, 1979.  The new constitution went into effect on June 1 1979.  Rhodesian government troops attacked ZAPU rebels near Lusaka, Zambia on June 26-July 1, 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals and one Rhodesian military personnel.  Rhodesian government troops attacked PF rebel bases in Mozambique on September 6-8, 1979, resulting in the deaths of 300 PF rebels and 15 Rhodesian soldiers. Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) heads of state expressed support for PF rebels on September 8, 1979. Lord Carrington of Britain, representing the Commonwealth of Nations (CON), mediated negotiations between representatives of the Rhodesian government and PF in London beginning on September 10, 1979.  Rhodesia government troops attacked ZAPU rebels near Lusaka, Zambia on November 2-3, 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 50 ZAPU rebels and 22 Rhodesian military personnel.  The UN Security Council condemned the Rhodesian government on November 23, 1979.  Rhodesian military aircraft bombed a ZAPU base near Lusaka, Zambia on November 25, 1979.  On December 12, 1979, the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) established the Commonwealth Monitoring Force (CMF), which consisted of 1,250 British troops, 150 Australian troops, 24 Fijian troops, 50 Kenyan troops and 74 New Zealand troops commanded by Major General John Acland of Britain, to monitor the ceasefire agreement and demobilization of combatants.  Lord Soames of Britain was appointed as colonial governor in Rhodesia on December 7, 1979.  The British government lifted economic sanctions (trade embargo) against Rhodesia on December 12, 1979.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (trade restrictions and oil embargo) against Rhodesia on December 15, 1979.  The UN Security Council lifted economic sanctions and military sanctions against Rhodesia on December 21, 1979.  Representatives of the Rhodesian government and Patriotic Front (PF) signed a ceasefire agreement in London on December 21, 1979.  More than 20,000 individuals, including some 1,361 Rhodesian military personnel and more than 10,000 rebels, were killed during the conflict.  Some one million Rhodesians were internally-displaced, and 100,000 Rhodesians fled as refugees to Botswana, Mozambique, and Zambia during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 22, 1979-July 25, 1990):  South African personnel were withdrawn from Rhodesia on January 30, 1980.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 14-29, 1980, and the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won 57 out of 100 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Zimbabwe African People’s Union – Patriotic Front (ZAPU-PF) and the Rhodesian Front (RF) each won 20 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 63 observers from Australia, Bangladesh, Barbados, Canada, Ghana, Jamaica, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka headed by Rajeshwar Dayal of India to monitor the parliamentary elections beginning on January 25, 1980. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) mission issued a report on March 2, 1980.  The governments of Australia, Denmark, Ireland, and West Germany sent personnel to monitor the parliamentary elections (the Irish mission issue a report on March 2, 1980). The government lifted martial law on March 20, 1980. The CMF was withdrawn from the country on March 16, 1980.  Zimbabwe was proclaimed as an independent state on April 18, 1980.  Robert Gabriele Mugabe formed a coalition government, which consisted of representatives of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU), on April 18, 1980.  Prime Minister Mugabe declared a state-of-emergency in July 1980.  Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on October 1, 1980.   The North Korean government agreed to provide military assistance (military advisors, training, and weapons) to the government of Zimbabwe in October 1980.  Members of the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) clashed in Bulawayo on November 9-10, 1980, resulting in the deaths of 55 individuals.  Members of the ZANLA and the ZIRPA clashed in Bulawayo on February 7-13, 1981, resulting in the deaths of some 300 individuals.  North Korean military advisors arrived in Zimbabwe in August 1981.  ZANLA and ZIPRA were merged into the national armed forces on November 7, 1981.  On February 17, 1982, Prime Minister Mugabe dismissed Joshua Nkomo and three other members of ZAPU from the coalition government after disclosing a plot to overthrow the government.  On March 11, 1982, Dumiso Dabengwa, Lookout Masuku, and four other leading ZIRPA members were arrested and charged with treason.  The North Korean-trained Zimbabwean military personnel, which were known as the Fifth Brigade, launched Operation Gukurahundi in January 1983.  Government soldiers massacred 55 men and women in Lupane in western Zimbabwe on March 5, 1983.  Joshua Nkomo took refuge in Botswana on March 8, 1983, and later went into exile in Britain.  Some members of the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) launched an insurgency the government in the southern province of Matabeleland beginning on March 8, 1983.  Government troops attacked ZAPU rebels in Botswana on November 8 and December 20, 1983, resulting in the death of one government soldier.  The government adopted a new constitution on August 8, 1984.  Twenty members of the ZAPU were killed in political violence in Beitbridge on November 10, 1984.  Legislative elections were held between June 26 and July 14, 1985, and ZANU won 64 out of 80 contested seats in the House of Assembly.  The ZAPU won 15 seats in the House of Assembly.  Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses against members of opposition political parties on November 13, 1985.  Prime Minister Mugabe suspended ZAPU on September 22, 1987.  The House of Assembly elected Robert Mugabe as president of Zimbabwe on December 22, 1987.  President Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo signed the Unity Accord, which provided for the merger of ZANU and ZAPU into the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) on December 22, 1987.  Joshua Nkomo was appointed as Vice-President of Zimbabwe.  Some 20,000 civilians, mostly members of the minority Ndebele ethnic group, were killed by government soldiers in Matabeleland province in the 1980s.  On April 19, 1988, President Mugabe announced an amnesty for political dissidents and former rebels, and 122 such individuals surrendered over the next few weeks.  Legislative elections were held on March 27-30, 1990, and the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won 116 out of contested 120 contested seats in the House of Assembly.  President Mugabe was re-elected with 78 percent of the vote on March 30, 1990.  President Mugabe lifted the state-of-emergency on July 25, 1990.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 26, 1990-March 29, 2000):  Legislative elections were held on April 8-9, 1995, and the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won 148 out of 150 seats in the House of Assembly.  President Mugabe was re-elected with 92 percent of the vote on March 16-17, 1996.  Most opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election, and only 31 percent of the electorate voted in the elections.  A white farmer, Sylvia Jackson, was killed by an employee at her farm in Marondera on November 13, 1998.  On April 29, 1999, President Mugabe appointed a 395-member constitutional commission to draft a new constitution.  Vice President Joshua Nkomo died of cancer on July 1, 1999.  The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) was established under the leadership of Morgan Tsvangirai on September 11, 1999.  The Italian government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of $22 million in economic assistance) against the government of Zimbabwe on September 15, 1999.  The Dutch government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of $15 million in economic assistance) against the government of Zimbabwe on September 29, 1999.  The Japanese government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Zimbabwe in 1999.  The MDC held its first Congress beginning on January 29, 2000.  A draft constitution for Zimbabwe was rejected in a referendum by 55 percent of the voters on February 12-13, 2000.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the government of Zimbabwe for human rights abuses on March 17, 2000.

Crisis Phase (March 30, 2000-February 11, 2009):  A supporter of the MDC was killed in political violence in northern Zimbabwe on March 30, 2000.  A government policeman was killed in a clash with black squatters in a farm near Marondera on April 4, 2000.  The U.S. government condemned the government of Zimbabwe on April 6, 2000.  On April 7, 2000, the House of Assembly approved legislation that provided the government with the authority to seized white-owned farms.  Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) supporters killed two members of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) headed by Morgan Tsvangirai near Buhera in eastern Zimbabwe, and ZANU-PF supporters killed a white farmer near Murowe in the Marondera area on April 15, 2000.  British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook condemned the killing of the white farmer.  ZANU-PF supporters killed a white farmer in southwest Zimbabwe on April 18, 2000.  Two supporters of the MDC were killed in political violence in Harare and Shamva on April 24, 2000.  On April 30, 2000, British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook condemned the government of Zimbabwe for its land redistribution program.  The British government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance and arms embargo) against the government of Zimbabwe beginning on May 3, 2000.  A white farmer, John Weeks, was killed by attackers at his home southwest of Harare on May 7, 2000.  On May 14, 2000, a white farmer, Alan Dunn, died as a result of an attack at his farm.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) deployed a pre-election assessment mission consisting of 12 personnel headed by Alex Akwueme of Nigeria on May 15-22, 2000.  One individual was killed in political violence in Harare on May 16, 2000, and two individuals were killed in political violence in the district of Mudzi on May 18, 2000.  The World Council of Churches (WCC) and the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) sent a five-member fact-finding mission to investigate the political situation in the country on May 20-29, 2000.  Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili of Lesotho expressed support for the government of President Mugabe on May 23, 2000.  One support of the ZANU-PF was killed in political violence in Mvurwi on May 26, 2000.  A white farmer, Tony Oates, was killed along with an attacker at his home northwest of Harare on June 1, 2000.  One supporter of the MDC was also killed in political violence in the town of Bikita on June 1, 2000.  Legislative elections were held on June 24-25, 2000, and ZANU-PF won 62 out of 120 contested seats in the House of Assembly.  The MDC won 57 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 44 observers headed by General Abdulsalami Abubakar of Nigeria to monitor the legislative elections from May 25 to June 27, 2000. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent 28 observers headed by Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the legislative elections from June 17 to June 27, 2000. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 25 observers from ten countries headed by Nora Schimming-Chase of Namibia to monitor the legislative elections from May 26 to June 27, 2000. The European Union (EU) sent 13 election experts, 94 long-term observers, and 79 short-term observers from 17 countries headed by Pierre Schori of Sweden to monitor the legislative elections beginning on May 31, 2000, and issued its final report on the legislative elections on July 4, 2000. The WCC and AACC established a mission consisting of 40 observers to jointly monitor the legislative elections from June 22 to June 27, 2000.  The South African government sent 20 observers to monitor the legislative elections, and the mission reported that the legislative elections were “largely free and fair” on September 14, 2000.  The Japanese government sent six observers to monitor the legislative elections from June 22 to June 27, 2000.  The Australian Parliamentary Observer Group (APOG-Zimbabwe), which consisted of three observers, monitored the legislative elections from June 21 to June 27, 2000.  Government police raided MDC offices on September 15, 2000.  The British government condemned the government of Zimbabwe on September 15, 2000. The U.S. government condemned the government of Zimbabwe for human rights abuses on February 16, 2001.  A white farmer, Gloria Olds, was killed on her farm near Bulawayo on March 4, 2001.  The European Parliamentary (EP) condemned the government of Zimbabwe on March 15, 2001.  One student was killed by government policemen during demonstrations in Harare on April 8, 2001.  The Canadian government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the government of Zimbabwe on May 11, 2001.  U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell condemned President Robert Mugabe on May 25, 2001.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Harare Township on July 3, 2001.  Two militants were killed during an attack against a white farm in the district of Hwedza on September 17, 2001.  On October 3, 2001, President Bakili Muluzi of Malawi, chairman of the SADC, condemned the “disregard of the rule of law” in Zimbabwe.  Three members of the MDC were killed in political violence on December 20-24, 2001.  Three supporters of the MDC were killed in political violence in Masvingo province on January 15-21, 2002.  President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria mediated negotiations between the parties beginning on January 20, 2002.  The European Union (EU) deployed 26 observers from six countries headed by Pierre Schori to monitor the upcoming presidential election, but the EU decided to withdraw the observers from the country on February 18, 2002.  The European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against President Mugabe and other government officials on February 18, 2002.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (travel ban) against Zimbabwean government officials on February 23, 2002.  President Mugabe was re-elected for a six-year term with some 56 percent of the vote on March 11, 2002.  Morgan Tsvangirai of the MDC claimed election fraud.  The South African government sent 60 observers headed by Sam Motsuenyane to monitor the presidential election from February 13 to March 12, 2002.  The government of Norway sent 25 observers headed by Kare Vollan to monitor the presidential election from February 15 to March 13, 2002.  The U.S. government sent 18 observers to monitor the presidential election from February 18 to March 13, 2002.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 70 observers to monitor the presidential election from February 13 to March 13, 2002.  The government of Namibia sent five observers headed by Kaire Mbuende to monitor the presidential election from February 15 to March 13, 2002.  The Nigerian government sent 16 observers headed by Chief Ernest A. O. Shonekan to monitor the presidential election. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 42 observers and 19 staff members headed by General Abdulsalami Abubakar of Nigeria to monitor the presidential election from February 23 to March 14, 2002.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent 24 observers headed by Gertrude Mongella to monitor the presidential election from February 28 to March 13, 2002.  The World Council of Churches (WCC) and All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) jointly sent 58 observers to monitor the presidential elections from March 1 to March 12, 2002.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers headed by Siteke Mwale of Zambia to monitor the presidential election from March 9 to March 13, 2002.  The Tanzanian government sent observers headed by Kingunge Ngombale-Mwiru to monitor the presidential election. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  A white farmer, Terry Ford, was killed by black squatters on his farm near Norton on March 18, 2002.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Zimbabwe on March 19, 2002.  The governments of Nigeria and South Africa attempted to mediate negotiations between the government and MDC from April 3 to May 16, 2002.  The British government imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) against the ruling ZANU-PF on July 11, 2002.  The U.S. government condemned the government of Zimbabwe for human rights abuses on March 4, 2003.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) against Zimbabwean leaders on March 7, 2003.  The European Union (EU) condemned the government of Zimbabwe for human rights abuses on March 28, 2003.  The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) condemned the government of Zimbabwe for human rights abuses on August 16, 2003.  Vice-President Simon Muzenda died of an illness on September 20, 2003.  The government of Zimbabwe formally withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on December 7, 2003.  As a result, the CoN terminated diplomatic sanctions against the government of Zimbabwe on December 7, 2003.  Legislative elections were held on March 31, 2005, and the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won 78 out of 120 contested seats in the House of Assembly.  The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) won 41 seats in the House of Assembly.  The South African government sent observers to monitor the legislative elections from March 15 to April 2, 2005.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 55 observers headed by Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka of South Africa to monitor the legislative elections from March 15 to April 2, 2005.  The African Union (AU) sent ten observers headed by Dr Kwadwo Afari-Gyan of Ghana to monitor the legislative elections from March 24 to April 2, 2005.  Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the MDC, was arrested and tortured by government police on March 11, 2007.  On March 12, 2007, the Canadian government condemned the violence in Zimbabwe and called for the release of Morgan Tsvangirai.  Legislative elections were held on March 29, 2008, and the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) faction led by Morgan Tsvangirai won 100 out of 210 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won 99 seats in the House of Assembly.  A faction of the MDC led by Arthur Mutambara won ten seats in the House of Assembly.  On March 29, 2008, Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the MDC, won the first round of presidential elections with 48 percent of the vote.  The Pan African Parliament (PAP) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent five long-term and 20 short-term observers from eight countries to monitor the legislative elections from March 9 to March 30, 2008.  The East African Community (EAC) sent seven observers led by Clarkson Karan of Kenya to monitor the legislative elections.  The Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers from seven countries to monitor the legislative elections.  The Electoral Commissions Forum (ECF) of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 21 observers from nine countries to monitor the legislative elections from March 18 to March 31, 2008.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 163 observers from eleven countries led by Hon. Jose Marcos Barrica of Angola to monitor the legislative elections from March 5 to March 30, 2008.  Opposition presidential candidate, Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the MDC, withdrew from the second round of presidential elections on June 22, 2008.  President Mugabe was re-elected with 86 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on June 27, 2008, and he was sworn in for a five-year term on June 29, 2008.  The Pan African Parliament (PAP) sent 34 observers and 26 staff members led by Hon. Marwick Khumalo of Swaziland to monitor the second round of presidential elections from June 8 to June 28, 2008.  President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa mediated negotiations between representatives of the parties in Pretoria, South Africa beginning on July 5, 2008.  On July 11, 2008, the governments of China and Russia vetoed a UN Security Council resolution that would have imposed economic sanctions against the government of Zimbabwe.  The U.S. government imposed additional economic sanctions (ban on business dealings) against 17 Zimbabwean companies on July 25, 2008.  On September 15, 2008, representatives of the government and MDC signed a South African-mediated power-sharing agreement in Harare, Zimbabwe, including provisions in which Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the MDC, would serve as prime minister (chair the Council of Ministers) and President Robert Mugabe would serve as chair of the National Security Council (NSC).  Former President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa facilitated further negotiations regarding the composition of the government beginning on October 13, 2008.  The South African government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of agriculture assistance) against the government of Zimbabwe on November 20, 2008.  Former President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa mediated negotiations between the parties in South Africa beginning on November 25, 2008.  The European Union (EU) imposed additional economic sanctions (travel ban) on eleven Zimbabweans on December 8, 2008.  The European Union (EU) imposed additional economic sanctions (travel ban) against more than 60 Zimbabweans and companies on January 26, 2009.  The European Union (EU)’s travel ban included a total of 203 Zimbabweans and 40 companies.  On February 11, 2009, Morgan Tsvangirai, leader of the MDC, was sworn in as prime minister.  More than 100 individuals were killed and more than 35,000 individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 12, 2009-present):  On March 5, 2009, the U.S. government renewed economic sanctions against the government of Zimbabwe for an additional year.  The Australian government pledged $6.4 million in economic assistance to the Zimbabwean government on March 11, 2009.  The U.S. government pledged $73 million in economic assistance to the Zimbabwean government on June 12, 2009.  The British government pledged a total of $98 million in economic assistance to the Zimbabwean government on June 22, 2009.  On October 16, 2009, the MDC decided to boycott the national unity government (cabinet and council of ministers) after the arrested of senior MDC member Roy Bennett on terrorism  charges.  Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai ended talks on power-sharing with President Robert Mugabe on October 26, 2009.  Prime Minister Tsvangirai decided to end the MDC boycott of the national unity government on November 6, 2009.  On February 16, 2010, the European Union (EU) decided to renew economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban on 200 individuals and 40 companies) for another year.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against 35 individuals on February 15, 2011.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) on an additional 51 individuals and 20 companies on February 17, 2011.  President Robert Mugabe and Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai agreed on the draft of a new constitution on January 17, 2013.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against 21 individuals and one company on February 18, 2013.  A new constitution was approved by 95 percent of voters in a referendum on March 16-17, 2013.  The new constitution limits future presidents to two five-year terms in office, prohibits the president from vetoing legislation, and abolishes the post of prime minister.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against 81 individuals and eight companies on March 25, 2013.  President Robert Mugabe signed the new constitution on May 22, 2013.  President Robert Mugabe was re-elected for a seventh term with 61 percent of the vote on July 31, 2013, and he was sworn in for a seventh term on August 22, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on July 31, 2013, and the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) won 160 out of 210 seats in the House of Assembly.  The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) won 49 seats in the House of Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent nine long-term observers and 60 short-term observers led by former President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from June 15 to August 2, 2013.  The Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent 27 observers from seven countries led by Ambassador Bethuel Kiplagat of Kenya to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from July 27 to August 3, 2013.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 573 observers led by Hon. Bernard Kamillius Membe of Tanzania to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from July 15 to August 2, 2013.  On August 9, 2013, the MDC filed a legal challenge against the results of the presidential election.  On August 16, 2013, the MDC dropped its legal challenge to the results of the presidential election because it did not feel that it could get a fair hearing.  On August 20, 2013, the U.S. government announced that its economic sanctions (travel ban on 120 individuals) would remain in place until there were further political reforms.  The MDC boycotted the opening of the House of the Assembly on September 17, 2013.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against eight individuals on February 17, 2014.

[Sources: Africa Diary, November 28-December 4, 1964, November 6-12, 1965, January 3-9, 1966, January 24-30, 1966, April 18-24, 1966, May 9-15, 1966, May 23-29, 1966, July 11-17, 1966, October 10-16, 1966, November 14-20, 1966, December 29, 1966-January 4, 1967, November 19-25, 1967, December 10-16, 1967, January 14-20, 1968, June 23-29, 1968, December 8-14, 1968, March 26-April 1, 1970, April 16-22, 1970, June 25-July 1, 1977, May 7-13, 1978, October 22-28, 1978, July 2-8, 1979, November 26-December 2, 1985; Africa News, January 5, 1981; Africa Contemporary Record (ACR), 1978-1979, 1979-1980; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), January 1-31, 1980, March 1980, December 15, 1985; African Union (AU) statement, July 25, 2013, August 2, 2013; Agence France-Presse (AFP), February 18, 2002; All Africa News Agency (AANA), July 4, 2000; Associated Press (AP), July 18, 1990, April 5, 2000, April 25, 2000, April 26, 2000, May 26, 2000, May 30, 2000, June 1, 2000, May 16, 2002, June 2, 2003; Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs press release, June 21, 2000; Banks and Muller, 1998, 1041-1047; Beigbeder, 1994, 242; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 132-133; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), November 13, 1998, September 15, 1999, September 29, 1999, January 29, 2000, February 15, 2000, March 30, 2000, April 1, 2000, April 4, 2000, April 16, 2000, April 18, 2000, April 25, 2000, April 30, 2000, May 3, 2000, May 13, 2000, May 15, 2000, May 17, 2000, May 18, 2000, May 22, 2000, May 26, 2000, June 1, 2000, June 23, 2000, September 10, 2000, March 9, 2001, March 15, 2001, April 9, 2001, May 11, 2001, May 25, 2001, December 24, 2001, February 18, 2002, February 23, 2002, March 13, 2002, March 18, 2002, March 19, 2002, April 3, 2002, July 11, 2002, September 20, 2003, December 8, 2003, March 3, 2004, July 5, 2004, February 21, 2005, April 2, 2005, April 3, 2005, July 3, 2006, June 29, 2008, July 5, 2008, July 12, 2008, July 25, 2008, August 9, 2008, September 16, 2008, November 10, 2008, November 20, 2008, December 8, 2008, January 26, 2009, February 6, 2009, February 11, 2009, February 13, 2009, March 5, 2009, March 11, 2009, June 12, 2009, June 22, 2009, October 16, 2009, October 26, 2009, November 6, 2009, February 16, 2010, November 27, 2010, February 15, 2011, February 17, 2012, March 19, 2013, March 25, 2013, August 2, 2013, August 3, 2013, August 9, 2013, August 16, 2013, August 20, 2013, August 22, 2013, September 17, 2013; Cervenka, 1969, 170-191; Clodfelter, 1992, 1021-1023; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) press release, May 25, 2000; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) report, March 14, 2002; Degenhardt, 1988, 424-425; Donelan and Grieve, 1973, 194-202; Electoral Commissions Forum (ECF) of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) statement, March 31, 2008; European Union (EU) press release, July 4, 2000; Facts on File, August 25, 1978; Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), March 15, 1996, March 18, 1996, March 20, 1996; Foreign Ministry of Japan press release, June 22, 2000; International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) press release, March 17, 2000; Jessup, 1998, 495-496, 834-837; Keesing’s Record of World Events, November 27-December 4, 1965, December 18-25, 1965, January 15-22, 1966, November 11-17, 1974, February 27, 1976, April 28, 1978, September 1, 1978, February 9, 1979, April 27, 1979, March 1990; Langer, 1972, 1083-1085, 1274-1275; Namibian Observer Mission (NOM-Zimbabwe) press release, March 13, 2002; National Democratic Institute (NDI) press release, May 22, 2000; National Democratic Institute (NDI) report, May 22, 2000; New York Times (NYT), February 16, 2000, March 8, 2003, April 1, 2005; Nigerian Observer Mission (NOM-Zimbabwe) press release, March 13, 2002; Norwegian Observer Mission (NOM-Zimbabwe) statement, March 13, 2002; OAU Observer Mission (OAUOM-Zimbabwe) press release, March 13, 2002; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), February 15, 2000, April 7, 2000, April 18, 2000, May 18, 2000, May 23, 2000, May 29, 2000, June 1, 2000, June 21, 2000, June 27, 2000; Pan African Parliament (PAP) statement, June 29, 2008; Reuters, April 29, 1999, April 6, 2000, April 16, 2000, April 26, 2000, May 11, 2000, May 17, 2000, May 18, 2000, May 30, 2000, June 5, 2000, June 25, 2000, June 28, 2000, September 14, 2000, September 15, 2000, February 16, 2001, July 3, 2001, January 22, 2002, February 18, 2002, February 19, 2002, March 13, 2002, March 4, 2003, March 28, 2003, August 16, 2003, January 17, 2013, February 18, 2013, March 19, 2013, March 25, 2013, May 22, 2013, August 1, 2013, August 2, 2013, August 3, 2013, August 16, 2013, August 22, 2013, February 17, 2014; Tillema, 1991, 127-128; Southern African Development Community (SADC) statement, March 13, 2002, April 2, 2005, March 30, 2008; The Daily News (Harare), March 14, 2002, May 30, 2002; The Daily Trust (Abuja), January 21, 2002; The Herald (Harare), February 7, 2002, February 13, 2002, March 12, 2002, March 13, 2002, March 15, 2002; The Namibian (Windhoek), February 13, 2002; The Times of Zambia (Ndola), March 9, 2002, May 18, 2002; Langer, 1972, 1083-1085, 1274-1275; U.S. Department of State, March 14, 2002; Weisburd, 1997, 89-92; World Council of Churches (WCC) press release, April 26, 2000, May 19, 2000, May 29, 2000, June 6, 2000, March 5, 2002, March 13, 2002; Zimbabwe Independent (Harare), July 7, 2000, August 4, 2000, March 15, 2002; Zimbabwe Standard (Harare), October 22, 2001.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Barber, James P. 1966. “Rhodesia: The Constitutional Conflict,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 4 (4): pp. 457-469.

Cefkin, J. Leo. 1968. “The Rhodesian Question at the United Nations.” International Organization 22 (Summer): 649-669.

Cilliers, J. K. 1985. Counter-Insurgency in Rhodesia, London and Sydney: Croom Helm.

McKinnell, Robert. 1969. “Sanctions and the Rhodesian Economy,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 7 (4), pp. 559-581.

Rothchild, Donald. 1996. “Successful Mediation: Lord Carrington and the Rhodesian Settlement.” In Chester A. Crocker and Fen Osler Hampson, ed. Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict. Washington DC: US Institute of Peace Press, 475-486.

 

The South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) is proud to announce the Former Namibian Ambassador to the United Nations, Dr Kaire Mbuende, as its first Distinguished Visiting African Fellow.

The award is funded by the Oppenheimer Memorial Trust and forms part of the legacy of our 75th anniversary in 2009.

Dr. Mbuende has worked in almost every tier of government. He has served at a national level in various ministerial positions in his native Namibia. Regionally, he spent 5 years as the Executive Secretary at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in Botswana. In 2006, Dr. Mbuende became his country’s permanent representative to the United Nations until his retirement from government last year.

Joining SAIIA is like coming full circle in many respects he says. During the 1980’s he studied at the University of Lund in Sweden and lectured there for a number of years. He eventually went on to his obtain his PhD in Economic Sociology from the same university.

“I started in academia”, says Dr. Mbuende, “and I have always dreamed of a time for some reflection.”

Dr. Mbuende’s experience spans many years and bridges the local and international political landscape. While he intends to focus on issues of regional integration during his fellowship at SAIIA, he also brings with him knowledge and insights gained over decades in political life.

Dr. Mbuende will be the keynote speaker at the SAIIA’s first Speaker’s Meeting of 2011. He will speak on “Southern African Regional Integration: The Need for Acceleration.”

A short Q & A with Dr. Kaire Mbuende on how he plans to spend his time at SAIIA.

How will you use your time at SAIIA as Distinguished African Fellow for 2011?

KM: At SAIIA, since this is really a short period of time, even though our association will go beyond the time I will spend here, I would like to go back to how we strengthen regional arrangements – to make them effective, to deliver on national development as well as effective participation in global affairs.

Of course regional arrangements encompass various dimensions. There’s the issue of peace and security, there’s the issue of trade and investment, the development of infrastructure, the harmonisation of policies. But what I think is key is how we enhance capacity for regional integration.

When you talk about regional integration what are the kind of issues you have in mind?

KM: I believe there is a need to improve the governance structure of [the Southern African Development Community] SADC. The world is dynamic, there are things happening every day. And if major decisions are made by the only once a year or by the integrated committee of ministers only twice a year, then of course we will we lag behind global development and developments to which the regional is to respond.

So I think there is a need for a mechanism that allows for a continuous process of decision making and that mechanism doesn’t exists now. There are a lot of ad-hoc meetings amongst leaders to respond to emerging issues or situations. But I think there is space for a more institutionalised form of continuous intergovernmental decision-making at a regional level.

How do you feel you about returning to a space to research and reflect having started out as a university lecturer in 1980?

KM: I think it’s a full circle for me but I also want to do policy relevant academic work. I’m going back to academia with hindsight because I am now experienced in the management of institutions. I know that sometimes you really have to take decision instantly and without thorough research.

And the implication has been that sometimes you strike luck and sometimes [it’s] not so good. So I am going back to look at what are the gaps and to be available to the leadership of my country, the region and of course the UN to use my experience in these various institutions.

SAIIA Communications Manager Chevon Erasmus Porter conducted the interview with Dr. Mbuende.

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