Aharon Liechtenstein Bibliography Format

Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l
(28 Iyar 5693, May 23, 1933 France - 1 Iyar 5775, April 20, 2015 Israel)

Click for more information.



לעברית, הקליקו פה


First Yahrzeit for Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l

Main event speakers included Dr. Tovah Lichtenstein, Rav Chaim Sabato, Harav Mosheh Lichtenstein and Rav Oded Mittelman. 
Complete program details...  Pictures

Click here to see videos of the shiurim that preceded the main event.



By His Light
Video tribute prepared for the First Yahrzeit of Moreinu VeRabbeinu HaRav Aharon Lichtenstein ztl

First shown at the Etzion Foundaton 2016 Dinner. 
The evening began with a special tribute
in memory of Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l.


Shloshim for Moreinu VeRabbeinu HaRav Aharon Lichtenstein ztl

First shown at the Sheloshim Program
in memory of Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l
held at the Jewish Center, NY on June 1st, 2015 




For a list of memorial events, click here.


Complete listing of Tikun Leil Shavuot shiurim in honor of Moreinu veRabbeinu


Please share your personal stories, condolences, eulogy, audio or video file of Moreinu veRabbeinu Rosh HaYeshiva Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l via this form. We will be posting a selection of these items.


Hundreds of Divrei Torah by Moreinu veRabbeinu Harav Aharon Lichtenstein - available on the Israel Koschitzky Virtual Beit Midrash.


To read some of Harav Lichtenstein's seminal works, click here.







Videos of Harav Lichtenstein's Life and Work


Memories of Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l, by Rabbi Mordechai I. Willig - shared with the talmidim of Har Etzion in November 2016

Eulogies and Divrei Torah uploaded to Har Etzion's Ki Mitzion Tetze Torah / KMTT audio site

Video of the Levaya 

Pictures from the Levaya [Photographer: Gershon Elinson]



Rav Dov Karoll '95, Radio Interview with Voice of Israel - An Insider's Look at Torah Giant Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein  


Rav Moshe Taragin '83, Video Interview with Arutz 7 - Love of the Torah and Love to a Fellow Jew


Shock and Emptiness - Students Eulogize Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein, Video Interview with Arutz 7


"Wise and Righteous" - Funeral of Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein, Arutz 7 Interviews the Mourners

Video: Dr. Tovah Lichtenstein, Rav Yosef Zvi Rimon, Harav Mosheh Lichtenstein, Yom Limud in Memory of Harav Aharon, Friday May 8th, Beit Knesset Alon Shevut Darom

Video: Hespedim for Rav Lichtenstein זצ״ל by Rabbi Yosef Blau, Rabbi Nati Helfgot '81 and Rabbi Dr. David Berger, @Azkarah at Ohab Zedek, NY [85:55] . Click here for an audio file.

Video: Classic Chinuch - Stuie Hershkowitz '75 speaks about Two Incidents with Harav Aharon Lichtenstein that Made a Lasting Impression

Video: Rabbi David Silber -Reflections on My Teacher

Video: Rav Tabory and Rav Bicktalk about Harav Aharon (May 2013)

Video: Shaarei Shomayim Synagogue, Toronto - Azkara April 26th with Rav Michael Rosensweig, Rabbi Seth Grauer, Rabbi Chaim Strauchler

Video: Finchley United Synagogue in Kinloss, London - Azkara April 26th with Rabbi Jeremy Lawrence, David Pruwer , Rabbi Daniel Epstein, Rabbi Daniel Roselaar, Rav Yair Kahn

Video: Maayanot HS Azkarah for Rav Aharon Lichtenstein - Mrs. Esther Krauss

Video: Maayanot HS Azkarah for Rav Aharon Lichtenstein - Rabbi Gedalyah Berger

Video: Maayanot HS Azkarah for Rav Aharon Lichtenstein - Rabbi Benzion Scheinfeld

Video: Akiva Hebrew day school in Southfield, Michigan -  R.Yochanan Schrader, alumnus of Yeshivat Yerucham

Video: Rabbi Noach GardenschwartzHesped for Rav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l

Video: Rabbi Abraham ("Avi") S. Robinson '97, speaking to the students at the Hebrew High School of New England (HHNE) near Hartford, Connecticut

Video: Hespedim given at Yeshiva College South Africa, by Rabbi Daniel Kaplan'03MTA, the National Shaliach of Bnei Akiva South Africa, and by campus Rabbi, Rabbi Ilan Raanan '89MTA

Video: Rabbi Dr. Aaron Adler '72, Hesped

Video: An Evening in Beloved Memory of Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l, at the Yeshurun Synague, Jerusalem, Sunday June 14th. With Rabbi Jeffrey Bienenfeld, Harav Mosheh Lichtenstein, Rabbi Daniel Tropper, Rabbi Dov Frimer. For details. Click here to view. Click here for audio.


Eulogies uploaded to yutorah.org - audio files - hebrew and english (including Rabbi Yehoshua Grunstein H'95, Rabbi Jeffrey Saks, Rabbi Yedidya Berzon, YU-Torah miTzion Toronto Kollel, Rabbi Jesse Horn '96, Rabbi Shalom Carmy, Rabbi Moshe Taragin '83, Rabbi Noah Gardenswartz '02, Rabbi Aharon Kahn, Rabbi Dovid Miller, Rabbi Marc Penner '88, Rabbi Michael Rosensweig '73, Rabbi Michael Taubes '77, Rabbi Aaron Cohen, Rabbi Yonason Sacks, Rabbi Mordechai I. Willig, Rav Yehuda Susman '81 and Rabbi Dovid Ebner, Rabbi Yechezkel Yakovson, Rabbi Eliezer Lerner '75, Rabbi Michael Siev '95, Rabbi Reuven Taragin '88, Rabbi Eytan Feiner, Rabbi Avishai David, Rabbi Menachem Linzer '95PC, Rabbi Aaron Rakeffet-Rothkoff, Rabbi Assaf Bednarsh '88, Rabbi Dovid Miller, Mordy Weisel '07, Rav Mordechai Schnaidman, Noach Lerman '04 and Rabbi Ezra Schwartz '11, David Roth '07, Rabbi Menachem Schrader '72, Rabbi Netanel Wiederblank, Rabbi Dovid Gottlieb, Daniel Fridman '02, Rabbi Yisroel Kaminetsky, Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz, Rabbi Michael Taubes '77, Rabbi Chaim Jachter '81, Rabbi Aaron Segal '99, Professor Aaron Koller '95, Rabbi Ari Kahn '80, Rabbi Eliav Silverman '95, Rabbi Tzvi Sinensky '98, Rav Yosef Zvi Rimon H'86, Rav Shlomo Hochberg, Rabbi Julius Berman, Rabbi Fabian Schonfeld, Rabbi Aaron Goldscheider, and others)


Manchester UK Hespedim by Rabbi Benjy Rickman '96 and Rabbi Chaim Kanterovitz '93 - Click here.

Eli Weber '81, Radio Interview with Zev Brenner - In Tribute to Harav Lichtenstein zt"l




Yitzchok Adlerstein, Reflections of a non-Talmid

Ben Atwood '14, Aharei Mot haRav Aharon

Harav Shlomo Aviner, The Upright and Proper Gaon

Rav Aharon Adler 72, Majesty and Humility

Rav Joshua Amaru 85, A Deliberateness of Speech

Rav Avi Baumol '88, A Eulogy for my Rabbi, Rav Aharon: Rudderless

Prof. David Berger, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein zt”l

Michael Berkowitz '77, My Thoughts on R. Aharon Lichtenstein

Rabbi Julius Berman, A Personal Reminiscence

Rabbi Scot Berman '77, Reflections on HaRav HaGaon Aharon Lichtenstein, ztvk”l

Rabbi Yosef Blau, The Loss of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l

Rabbi Moshe Bleich, Reflections on Rav Aharon Lichtenstein Zatzal and Kabbalat haTorah 5775

Rabbi Yossie Bloch '95, My Rebbe is Gone 

Rabbi Nasanayl Braun '92, The Death of Rabbi Akiva's Students

Rabbi Nasanayl Braun '92, Acts of Love and R. Aharon Lichtenstein, zt”l

Rav David Brofsky '90, “Since R. Aharon’s passing, not a day, an hour, barely a moment passes in which I do not feel a sense of loss…” 

Rav David Brofsky '90, A Year Later

Rav Shlomo Brin, Shloshim Azkara at the Jewish Center, transl. by Dr. Kalman Neuman

Rabbi Shalom Carmy, On Complexity and Clarity

Rabbi Shalom Carmy, A Personal Perspective

Rabbi Shalom Carmy, The Mantle of Elijah

Herb Cohen, I was a student in Rabbi Lichtenstein’s class in 1965-66

Rafi Cohen H'98, What My Rabbi's Death Means to Me

Jeremy Cooper '12, The Massive Influence One Man Had

Nathan Diament, An Approachable Giant

Rabbi Ori Einhorn H'90, A Tribute by a Minor Student

Michael Eisenberg '89, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein (מורי ורבי), Yehi Zichro Baruch

David J. Eisenman '82, Divrei Zicharon L’Moreinu v’Rabbeinu Rav Aharon Lichtenstein zt”l

Rabbi Ron Yitzchak Eisenman '79, A Gentle Giant of Torah

Rabbi Ron Yitzchak Eisenman '79, Rebbe Zt”l

Rabbi Zvi Engel '92, A Personal Reflection on the Loss of Harav Aharon Lichtenstein, ztl

Rabbi Yitzchak Etshalom '83, Written from the Heart, Dictated by Tears

Rabbi Dr. Eliezer Finkelman, A Memory of My Late Teacher

Rabbi Joel Finkelstein '81, All That We Aspire To

Rabbi Elli Fischer '99Kollel, Who Was Aharon Lichtenstein?

Rabbi Daniel Fridman '02, For This You Have Been Created

Rav Binny Freedman '81, Rav Lichtenstein zt”l: ‘We have lost the greatest of us’

Rav Binny Freedman '81, We have Lost the Greatest of Us - unabridged

Rabbi Menachem Genack, Rav Aharon: An Appreciation for Complexity

Rabbi Menachem Genack, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein: A Personal Reminiscence 

Alan Jay Gerber: Rav Lichtenstein: A Jewish Communal Tribute

Alan Jay Gerber, A Sheloshim Tribute

Chaim Goldberg '11, A Grandfather Figure

Rabbi Hillel Goldberg, What is the Legacy of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein?

Rabbi Hillel Goldberg, "Happy is he who saw this, even if only a portion thereof"

Rabbi Aaron Goldscheider, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l: Four Vignettes

Rabbi Alan Haber '86, Gedol HaDor

Rabbi Nati Helfgot '81, Divrei Azkarah

Dr. Aton M. Holzer '95, This week has been a very difficult one.

Rabbi Sam Iser '06C, Thoughts and Reflections on a Life of Simplicity

Aliza Israel,"What Does Rav Aharon Say?"

Rav Alex Israel '85, Lessons from Rav Lichtenstein z"l on the First Yahrzeit

Rabbi Chaim Jachter '81, Father has died.

Elie Jesner '95, Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein: A champion of spiritual sensitivity

Rav Ari Kahn '80, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein, Rav Gustman, and the Legend of the Milkman

Rav Ari Kahn '80, The Life and Learning of Harav Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l

Rabbi Avi Kannai H'86, "I Have Set the Lord Before Me, Always "

Rabbi Maury Kelman '83, An Appreciation - Rav Lichtenstein: A Man of Truth

Rabbi Aryeh Klapper, Bearing the Weight of a Complex World

Rabbi Aryeh Klapper, The Integrated Religious Life

David Koppel '77, It Was Signed Aharon Lichtenstein

Rabbi Benji Levy '04MTA, Be Among the Students of Aharon

Rav Paul Lewin '90MTA, My Rebbe

Rabbi Menachem Linzer '95, Principal Hillel Torah, In Mourning the Passing of our Gadol Hador 

Dr. Tamar Meir, From the Moment Rav Lichtenstein zt"l's Death Became Known

Rabbi Dr. Gil Perl '96, The Searing Silence ;  Gadol HaDor - audio

Rabbi Benjy Rickman, '96 A Personal Recollection

Rav Yosef Zvi Rimon H'86, How do we define the leading rabbi of the generation?

Rabbi Moshe Rosenberg, Geshem vTal

Rabbi Dr. Michael Rosensweig '73, Divrei Hesped given at Shloshim, Jewish Center, NY


Rabbi Aaron Ross '92, Rabbi Dr. Aharon Lichtenstein ob"m - Ish haEmet


David Roth '07, I really miss Rebbi on a personal level, and I also feel the loss for kelal yisroel.


Rabbi Gidon Rothstein '82, Acts of love and R. Aharon Lichtenstein, zt”l

Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, The Finest Exponent of Torah ve-Chokhmah in our Generation

Prof. Chaim Saiman '96PC, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein: The Impassioned Moderate

Judy Schwartz Salfer, Passion for Torah at Stern College


Rabbi Benzion Scheinfeld, "His personality altered the landscape of my dreams and changed the focus of my avodas Hashem."


Rabbi Dr. Mordechai Schnaidman, In Memoriam: Rav Aharon Lichtenstein, 1933-2015


Raphael Z. Schwartz '88, His Example is Compelling


Dr. David Shatz, Strength and Splendor: A Tribute to Rav Aharon Lichtenstein


Shaul Seidler-Feller '06, On a Short Wedding Wish to the Lichtensteins from the Pen of Rabbi Jehiel Jacob Weinberg


Dr. Moshe Simon-Shoshan '88, Our Captain Lies Dead

Rabbi BenTzion Spitz, Chief Rabbi of Uruguay, My Lodestar, My Rosh Yeshiva

Rabbi Moshe Stavsky '99, In Memory of Harav Lichtenstein zt"l

Nadav Steindler '04PC, How to Say Nothing in 500 Words on Rav Lichtenstein

Rabbi Chaim Strauchler '95, The Legacy of Rabbi aharon Lichtenstein

Rav Moshe Taragin '83, My Rebbe: A Unique Blend Of Intellect, Piety And Humility

Rabbi Michael Taubes '77, "Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom is the spirit of God?"

Rabbi Michael Taubes '77, Divrei Hesped on the Occasion of his First Yahrzeit

Rabbi Kalman Topp '90, My Rebbe and Mentor

Adrian Treger '97, My Rav

Avraham Wein '12, Of Sensitivity and Humility: An Exposition of Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein’s Approach to the Suffering of Others

Nathan Weissler '12, My Tribute to Rav Aharon Lichtenstein z"l

Jonathan Wiesen '99, I don’t know what we will do at the next Gush Shabbaton without R’ Ahron to carry our tune

Rabbi David Wolkenfeld '07, From Aharon to Aharon: Immediate Reflections on the Death of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein zt”l

Rav Eliyahu Yaniger '78, Rav Lichtenstein Thoughts

Rabbi Yonatan Ziring '06, Some Thoughts From, and About, Rav Aharon Lichtenstein

Rabbi Yonatan Ziring '06, Eliyahu's Mantle: Some Thoughts from the Eulogies

Rabbi Shlomo Zuckier '05, Rav Lichtenstein and Intensity

Rabbi Shlomo Zuckier '05, A Piece of Lomdus on Avelus for One's Rav


YU News, YU Mourns Passing of Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein zt"l

The Orthodox Union, The Enduring Legacies of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein

Tablet Magazine, Yair Rosenberg '06, American-Raised Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein Wins the Israel Prize

Tablet Magazine, Yair Rosenberg '06, Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein, a Leader of Modern Orthodoxy, Dies at 81

Jerusalem Post, Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein - Modern Orthodox Visionary, Dies at 81

The Times of Israel, Renowned Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein Dies at 81

Atlanta Jewish Times, Rav Lichtenstein, a Jewish Leader of Rare Value

Israel National News, Ari Soffer '07, Leading Religious-Zionist Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein Passes Away







Special Issue of OU's Jewish Action: Remembering Rav Aharon Lichtenstein. Volume 76, No. 1 (Fall 5776/2015)

Special Issue of Tradition: Essays on the Thought and Scholarship of Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein. Volume 47, No. 4 (Winter 2014) 

An Interview with Harav Aharon Lichtenstein, transcribed by Rav Dov Karoll

In anticipation of Rav Lichtenstein's being honored at the RIETS Annual Dinner of Tribute on November 13th, 2011.


Special Section of Jewish Action - Spring 2004

"In this section, we celebrate the seventieth birthday of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein. Rav Lichtenstein’s impact upon thousands of his talmidim is not due solely to his encyclopedic Torah knowledge. It is also due to his special sensitivity and refinement, which provides a model of an ish hashalem. In the pages ahead, Shalom Carmy provides a taste of the Brisker method of lomdus and Rav Lichtenstein’s significant contribution to the unfolding of that derech halimmud (methodology).Yitzchak Blau provides a window into Rav Lichtenstein’s thought. Both of these writers—who are disciples of Rav Lichtenstein and talmidei chachamim in their own right—enhance our appreciation of this eminent Torah personality." 


"And they also prophesied" by Rabbi Hillel Goldberg, A Tribute to Rav Aharon Lichtenstein


“Humanism, Democracy, and Individual Rights in the Thought of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein,” by Prof. Aviad HaCohen and Prof. Eliezer Hadad (Hebrew)

Beis Yitzchak Vol. 47 (RIETS) included a large section on the Torah of Rav Lichtenstein (Hebrew).

Halakha and Humanism: Essays on the Thought and Scholarship of Rabbi Aharon LIchtenstein. Ed. by Rabbi Yitzchak Blau, Dr. Alan Jotkowitz, and Rabbi Reuven Ziegler. For more info, click here.




In order to help courses and self-study in the thought of Rav Lichtenstein zt"l, Rabbi Yaakov Bieler has developed a series of educational units based upon the primary sources that R. Aharon quotes in his essays. The primary sources are translated and presented with guiding questions and questions for further thought.  The essays themselves are available online.  The website is here:https://rayanotyaakov.wordpress.com/studying-the-essays-of-r-aharon-lichtenstein/


Exploring the Thought of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein 




Overview of MLA 8 Format

The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work.

For a visual guide to MLA 8 citations, see our infographic.

For a PDF guide to general MLA 8 guidelines,click here.

MLA 8th Edition: What’s New?

With the new MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions. Let’s take a look at the major changes:

1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type

In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, if they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to find and reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information from a more broad variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for writers to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that  can be used to create citations, which is displayed in MLA 8.

To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of each source used in their paper. These “core elements” are what make up the information that will populate each citation. These pieces of information can also be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator.

The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following:

  1. Authors.
  2. Title of the source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Numbers,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period.

These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format:

Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location

Here is an example of how an actual citation (in this case, for a book) looks when written using the 8th edition style:

Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster, 2012.

For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib.com.

2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations

When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine.

MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might look as follows:

Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title, Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers.

Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format:

Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124.

3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names

In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names.


@TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://).


@realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter, 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312

4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations

In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8th edition to be clearer to the reader.

Example in MLA 7:

O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.

Example in MLA 8:

O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics, vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49.

5. Inclusion of URLS

Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations is highly recommended by the 8th edition.

Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation.

6. Omitting the city of publication

In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted.

It is suggested that you include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States).

7. Flexibility in citation formatting

In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work.

For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca, and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page.

To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves, should they wish to do so.

More on MLA 8.

8th Edition: Formatting Guidelines

Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your the rest of your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well.  

General guidelines:

  1. Use white 8 ½  x 11” paper.
  2. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
  3. The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
  4. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin
  5. Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface
  6. Use 12 point size
  7. Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page.
  8. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces.
  9. You can either create a title page usingEasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header.

To create a MLA header, follow these steps:

  • Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin.
  • Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each.
  • Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby.
  • Do not place a period after the title or after any heading.
  • Double space between the title and first lines of the text.


Page Numbers

  • Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin.
  • Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page).
  • Do not place p. before the page number.
  • Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences.


Tables and Illustrations

  • Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to.
  • Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it.
    • This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines.
    • Format the title the same way as the title of the paper.
    • Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table.
    • Use double spacing throughout.
    • Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption.
      • The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration.
      • **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page.
  • Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption.
    • The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration.

Use of Numerals

The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself.


One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ½, 101

If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements.


247 milligrams, 5 pounds

Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind:

  • Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number.
  • Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs.
  • In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study

8th Edition: Works Cited Lists

The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list.

Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations:

  • Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author.
  • Each citation should have a hanging indent.

When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period.


Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

– – -. Colonial America. Oxford UP, 1999.

If the author is listed along with another author, type out the full name of each author, do not use the hyphens and periods.


Sparks, Nicholas. The Notebook. Warner, 1996.

—. A Walk to Remember. Warner, 1999.

Two or more works by the same author:


Rosenthal, Amy Krouse, and Tom Lichtenheld. Duck! Rabbit! San Francisco: Chronicle, 2009.

—. Exclamation Mark! Scholastic, 2013.

  • The Works Cited list typically appears at the end of a paper.
  • Make the Works Cited page the next consecutive page number. If the last page of your project is page 12, the Works Cited list will be page 13.
  • An annotated bibliography is different than a Works Cited list. An annotated bibliography includes brief summaries and evaluations of the sources.
  • Use one-inch margins around the page. Double-space the entire document.
  • Place the title of the page (Works Cited) in the center of the page, an inch from the top.
  • Create a double space between the title (Works Cited) and the first citation.
  • Each citation should start on the left margin (one inch from the side of the paper).

Example of a Works Cited List:

Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43.

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

– – -. Colonial America. Oxford UP, 1999.

The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002.

8th Edition: Formatting “Core Elements”

Formatting: Titles

The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:

How to Format Book Titles:

When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period.  

See the MLA format citation below:

Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title. Publisher, Publication Year.

Click here for additional information on book titles.

How to Format Periodical Titles:

When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma.

An MLA format example is below:

Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers.

How to Format Website Titles:

When citing a website, the title of the webpage or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address.

The citation format is as follows:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

Click here for additional information on website titles.

Formatting: Authors

Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below:

One Author:

Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg.

Citation example:

Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

Two Authors:

Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name:

Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske.

Citation example:

Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007.

Three or More Authors:

List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors:

Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al.

Citation example:

George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Individuals Other Than an Author:

In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name:

Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.  

When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused:

Byrne, Rose, performer.

*Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title.

If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation:

The American Heart Association.

Translated Works:

Treat the translator as the author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”:

Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator.
Citation example:

Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995.

No Author:

When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title.

Formatting: Versions

Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to. This will help them locate the exact source themselves.

For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition.

If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation.

Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions:

Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMC&lpg=PP1&dq=psychology&pg=PR6#v=onepage&q=psychology&f=false.

JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008.

Formatting: Dates

When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project.

Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations.


Jan., Sept., Nov.

In-Text Citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

When citing websites, just include the author’s last name and/or a shortened version of the webpage title.

Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.

Example in text citation:

(Author Last Page Number[s]).

(Rowling 19). Find out more here.

In-Text Citations with more than one author

If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names.


(J. Johnson 12-13).


(John Johnson 12-13).

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:


(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).

If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.


(Smith et al. 45).

In-Text Citations without an author

Some sources do not have authors or contributors—for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten/abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).


Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).

With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).

Citing Part of a Work in the text

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.

Article in a Periodical in the text

When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.

It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).

Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.

The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).

Citing Group or Corporate Authors in the text

In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.

Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).

As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).

Citing an Entire Source in the text

When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.

Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.

Citing Indirect Sources in the text

When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.

John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).

Citing Classical/Religious Sources in the text

For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.

(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).

When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.

Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).

The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.

(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).<?p>

Where to Place In-Text Citations

Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).

Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.

“Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).

Placing In-text Citations After Direct Quotes

When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.

Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).

Long Quotes

When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.


The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader (Taparia 9).

Why We Use In-Text Citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Citing Sources in MLA 8

Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types.

*Please note that these are only some of the ways you can cite sources in MLA 8. If you need further assistance, consult the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, or ask your teacher or librarian.

How to Cite a Print Book:

Book – A written work or composition that has been published – typically printed on pages bound together.

Much of the information needed to cite a book can be located on the title page:


Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).


Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011.

Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.

How to Cite a Book Chapter:


Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).


Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87.

How to Cite an E-book Found Online:


Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL.


Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUC&lpg=PP1&dq=zombies&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=zombies&f=false.

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html.

How to Cite an E-book on a Device:


Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s).


Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014.

For more info click here.

How to Cite a Website:


Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.


Feinberg, Ashley. “What’s the Safest Seat in an Airplane?.” Gizmodo, Gawker Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.gizmodo.com/the-safest-seat.

Click here for more on websites.

How to Cite a Website with no author:


“Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.


“Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts

How to Cite a Website with No Webpage Title:


Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.


General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.

How to Cite a Journal Article Found on a Database:

Journal – A periodical published by a special group or professional organization. Often focused around a particular area of study or interest. Can be scholarly in nature (featuring peer-reviewed articles), or popular (such as trade publications).

*Note: Online databases provide access to thousands of journal articles. It is important to identify the database name when citing a journal article found through a database.


Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal, First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI.


Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries, vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635.

How to Cite a Journal Article Found in Print:


Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.


Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

How to Cite an Essay:

Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.

How to Cite an Image from a Website:

If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead.


Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.


Vasquez, Gary A. Photograph of Coach K with Team USA. NBC Olympics, USA Today Sports, 5 Aug. 2016, www.nbcolympics.com/news/rio-olympics-coach-ks-toughest-test-or-lasting-legacy.

Gilpin, Laura. “Terraced Houses, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.” Library of Congress, Reproduction no. LC-USZ62-102170, 1939, www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90716883/.

How to Cite a Photograph in a Book:


Photographer Last, First M. Photograph Title. Circa Date Taken, Location/Museum. Book Title, by Author First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year Published, page number(s).


Bennett, Peter. East Village. Circa 1983, Museum of Modern Art. New York City: A Photogenic Portrait, by Laura Sheppard, Twin Lights, 2004, p. 8.

How to Cite a Photograph from a Database:


Photographer Last, First M. Photograph Title. Circa Year Created, Location/Museum. Database Title, URL.


Freed, Leonard. Holidaymaker Stuck in Traffic Jam. Circa 1965. ARTstor, www.artstor.org.

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Print:


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title [City], Date Month Year Published, Page(s).


Bowman, Lee. “Redistricting Push Puts a Lot on Line.” Sun-Sentinel [Fort Lauderdale], 7 Mar. 1990, p. A4.

How to Cite a Newspaper Article Found Online:


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Website Title. Website Publisher, Date Month Year Published.


Jensen, Elizabeth. “Sesame Workshop Tackles Literacy With Technology.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 19 Oct. 2014.

How to Cite a Magazine Article in Print:


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Date Month Year Published, Page(s).


Rothbart, Davy. “How I Caught up with Dad.” Men’s Health, Oct. 2008, pp. 108-13.

How to Cite a Magazine Article Found Online:


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Date Month Year Published, URL.


Laurent, Olivier. “See What Undocumented Immigrants Carry Across the Border.” TIME Magazine, 30 Jan. 2015, www.time.com/364789/undocumented-immigrants.

How to Cite a Movie:


Film Title. Contributors (these can be directors, producers, performers, etc). Studio/Distributor, year released.


Little Miss Sunshine. Directed by Martin Scorsese, performed by Robert DeNiro and Harvey Keitel. Warner Brothers, 1973.

How to Cite a TV Show Episode:


“Episode Title.” Contributors (these can be directors, producers, performers, etc.), Show Title, Network/Channel, Air Date.


“Bass Player Wanted.” Narrated by Bob Saget, directed by Pamela Fryman, How I Met Your Mother, CBS, 16 Dec. 2013.

How to Cite Content from a Streaming Service (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon prime etc.):


Title of the film or video. Role of contributors and their First name Last name, Publication date. Service Name, url.


Kindergarten Cop. Directed by Ivan Reitman, performance by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Universal Pictures, 21 Dec. 1990. Amazon Prime, www.amazon.com/Kindergarten-Cop-Arnold-Schwarzenegger/dp/B001VLLES4.

How to Cite a YouTube Video:


Last name, First name of the creator. “Title of the film or video.” Title of the website, role of contributors and their First name Last name, Publication date, URL.


RotoBaller. “RotoBaller MLB: Top Fantasy Baseball Catcher Dynasty League Prospects for 2016.” YouTube, commentary by Raphael Rabe, 27 Mar. 2016, youtu.be/gK645_7TA6c.

How to Cite a Blog Post:


Last, First. “Article Title.” Website/Blog Title. Website Publisher, Day Month Year Published, URL.


Shaw, Julia. “The Memory of Illusion.” Mind Guest Blog, Scientific American Blogs, 13 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/the-memory.

How to Cite a Podcast:


Host’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Podcast Episode.” Title of Overall Podcast, Episode Number if Given, Web Site Hosting If Different From Podcast Title, Day Month Year of Episode, URL of episode.


Orton, Tyler, and Patrick Blennerhassett. “Lessons From the Brexit.” BIV Podcast, Episode 18, Business Vancouver, 28 June 2016, www.biv.com/article/2016/6/biv-podcast-episode-18-lessons-brexit/.

How to Cite a Tweet:


Twitter Handle (First Name Last Name if Known). “The entire tweet word-for-word.” Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.


@jtimberlake (Justin Timberlake). “USA! USA!!.” Twitter, 16 June 2014, 8:05 PM. www.twitter.com/jtimberlake/status/64780730286358528lang=en.

How to Cite a Facebook Post:


Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post. Facebook, Day Month Year of Post, Time of Post, URL.


Rick Mercer Report. Spread the Net Challenge Winners 2016. Facebook, 23 Mar. 2016, 9:00 a.m., www.facebook.com/rickmercerreport.

How to Cite an Email:


Email sender’s Last name, First name. “Email subject.” Received by Recipients Name, date sent.


Olsen, Mary. “Re: Statistics from Student Population.” Received by Jonas Conner, 15 Mar. 2015.

How to Cite a Music Album:


Artist/Group Name. Album Title. Studio/Record Label, Year Released.


Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005

How to Cite a Song:


Artist/Group Name. “Song Title.” Album Title, Studio/Record Label, Year Released.


Presley, Elvis. “Jailhouse Rock.” Essential Elvis Presley, BMG, 2007.

How to Cite Sheet Music/Scores:


Composer Last Name, Composer First Name. Title of score. Date of composition. Publisher, Date of Publication.


Handel, G. F. Trio Sonata No. 1. 1733. Southern Music, 1989.

How to Cite a Lecture or Speech:


Last Name, First Name. “Presentation Title.” Meeting/Event. Venue, City. Date Conducted.


Pausch, Randy. “Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams.” Journeys. Carnegie Mellon University. McConomy Auditorium, Pittsburgh. 18 Sept. 2007.

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation:


Author’s Last Name, First Name. Paper Title. Dissertation or thesis, Publisher [usually a college or university], Year published.


Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County. Dissertation. University of Maryland, 2011.

How to Cite Unpublished Conference Proceedings:

Include the name of the entire proceedings, and if there is a specific presentation or paper being cited, include this information as well. You also want to include conference information (name of conference, date, and location) if not already stated in the name of the proceedings.

Because the conference proceedings / paper is unpublished, do not include any publication information, but instead a description of the type of document and the year it was published. Additionally, as it is important to describe where the document can be found since there is no formal publisher, you should include the location of the document. Like all citations in a works cited, try to incorporate as much information as you can find.


Contributor name(s). Proceedings of the Conference Name, Location, Date. Name of  Publisher, Year.


Balakian, Anna, and James J. Wilhelm, editors. Proceedings of the Xth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association, New York, NY, 1982. Garland, 1985.


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