Multiaxial Assessment Case Study

By DeepDiveAdmin, Wed, December 02, 2015

Axis I is part of the DSM "multiaxial" system for assessment. The five axis model is designed to provide a comprehensive diagnosis that includes a complete picture of not just acute symptoms but of the entire scope of factors that account for a patient's mental health. This page explains DSM Axis I

Axis I: Clinical Disorders

This is the top-level of the DSM multiaxial system of diagnosis. It represents acute symptoms that need treatment; Axis I diagnoses are the most familiar and widely recognized (e.g., major depressive episode, schizophrenic episode, panic attack). Axis I terms are classified according to V-codes by the medical industry (primarily for billing and insurance purposes).

Clinical Disorders are grouped into categories listed below with examples of each.

Major Categories of DSM Clinical Disorders

Adjustment Disorders

  • With Anxiety
  • With Depressed Mood
  • With Disturbance of Conduct
  • With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood
  • With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct
  • Unspecified.

Anxiety Disorders

Cognitive Disorders (Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic).

Dissociative Disorders.

  • Depersonalization Disorder
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • Dissociative Fugue
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

Eating Disorders.

  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

Factitious Disorders.

  • With Combined Psychological and Physical Signs and Symptoms
  • With Predominantly Physical Signs and Symptoms
  • With Predominantly Psychological Signs and Symptoms

Impulse-Control Disorders (Not Classified Elsewhere).

  • Impulse-Control Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
  • Kleptomania
  • Pathological Gambling
  • Pyromania
  • Trichotillomania

Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition

  • Catatonic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition
  • Personality Change Due to a General Medical Condition

Mood Disorders

Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders

Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders.


  • Exhibitionism
  • Fetishism
  • Frotteurism
  • Pedophilia
  • Sexual Masochism
  • Sexual Sadism
  • Transvestic Fetishism
  • Voyeurism
  • Paraphilia Not otherwise Specified

Sexual Dysfunction:

  • Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
  • Female Orgasmic Disorder (Inhibited Female Orgasm)
  • Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
  • Male Erectile Disorder
  • Male Orgasmic Disorder (Inhibited Male Orgasm)
  • Premature Ejaculation
  • Sexual Aversion Disorder
  • Sexual Dysfunction Due to a General Medical Condition
  • Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
  • Sexual Dysfunction Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

Sexual Pain Disorders:

  • Dyspareunia (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)
  • Vaginismus (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)

Sleep Disorders.

  • Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder
  • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder
  • Dyssomnias Not Otherwise Specified. (NOS)
  • Insomnia Related to Another Mental Disorder
  • Nightmare Disorder (Dream Anxiety Disorder)
  • Primary Sleep Disorders:
    • Primary Insomnia
    • Primary Hypersomnia
    • Narcolepsy
  • Sleep Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition
  • Sleep Disorder Related to Another Mental Disorder
  • Sleep Terror Disorder
  • Sleepwalking Disorder
  • Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder

Somatoform Disorders.

  • Somatization Disorder
  • Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
  • Conversion Disorder
  • Pain Disorder
  • Hypochondriasis.Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • Somatoform Disorder not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

Substance-Related Disorders.

Axis I in DSM-5

The next edition of the DSM is scheduled for publication in May, 2013. Working groups are reviewing the multiaxial system to try to bring it more into line with international reporting standards (as opposed to U.S. standards) with the goal of having a global approach to mental health diagnosis. Regarding Axis I, the American Psychiatric Association states,

The subgroup has recommended that DSM-5 collapse Axes I, II, and III into one axis that contains all psychiatric and general medical diagnoses. This change would bring DSM-5 into greater harmony with the single-axis approach used by the international community in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

An example of a multiaxial diagnosis

From Edward Pierce, LCSW

  • Axis I: Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features
  • Axis II: Dependent Personality Disorder Frequent use of denial
  • Axis III: None
  • Axis IV: Threat of job loss
  • Axis V: GAF = 35 (last year)

Related Reading

Click below to read articles related to Axis I and the DSM.


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Robert L. Spitzer, M.D.
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! A! q: B( b( a5 ]) z) o# {Dr. Spitzer is Professor of Psychiatry at Columbia University and Chief of the Biometrics Research Department at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. He had his psychiatry residency training at the Institute and has worked there since 1961. He has achieved national and international recognition as an authority in psychiatric assessment and the classification of mental disorders. He is the author of more than 250 articles on psychiatric assessment and diagnosis.
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4 [  {' N0 h* E; Q- w" `8 A( P: j- EIn 1974, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) appointed Dr. Spitzer to chair its Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics, and in this capacity he assumed the leadership role in the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III), published in 1980, which became the authoritative classification of mental disorders for the mental health professions, not only in the United States, but internationally.6 }- n' O/ q4 f7 u* _/ L

6 f# l% N" x$ C+ |/ t, JIn 1983, Dr. Spitzer was appointed to chair the APA's Work Group to Revise DSM-III and coordinated that effort, which resulted in the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R), in the spring of 1987. He was active in the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), as a Special Advisor to the APA's Task Force on DSM-IV.
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* ^$ C4 J& k  T3 aIn 1994, Dr. Spitzer received the APA's award for psychiatric research for his contributions to psychiatric assessment and diagnosis. In 2000, he was the Thomas William Salmon Medal recipient from the New York Academy of Medicine. He has pioneered the development of several widely used diagnostic assessment procedures, including the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), and the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ).) S( F7 {+ v2 y& t

- ]! b5 _7 b  Z/ H& z) ]0 e, IMiriam Gibbon, M.S.W.
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% ?. A6 p3 }1 F1 C4 RMs. Gibbon is a Research Scientist in the Biometrics Department of the New York State Psychiatric Institute and is on the faculty of the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry. She has been involved in the development of psychiatric evaluation and diagnostic instruments for 25 years and has served as a consultant to many research groups in the United States and internationally.
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In the 1970s, Ms. Gibbon began working with the Biometrics group to develop the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS). She is a coauthor of the Global Assessment Scale (GAS), which was part of the SADS, and of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), a revision of the GAS that became Axis V of DSM-III-R. She is a coauthor of the SCID and of the DSM Casebooks, and, with Dr. Michael First, produced the SCID 101 Videotape Training Program.' A- u0 H# F* c5 y: {5 M

4 G- Q' N# a0 j% a, `* \Ms. Gibbon has trained thousands of researchers and clinicians in the use of diagnostic and evaluation instruments, beginning with the SADS and continuing with the GAS, the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, and the SCID.
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# b) [5 x2 z1 J/ NAndrew E. Skodol, M.D.
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Dr. Skodol is Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. He is also the Director of the Department of Personality Studies at New York State Psychiatric Institute, in New York, New York.
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Janet B.W. Williams, D.S.W.
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Dr. Williams is Professor of Clinical Psychiatric Social Work in the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and Deputy Chief of the Biometrics Research Department at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Her career has focused on the development of psychiatric classifications and instruments to measure psychopathology, and she is well known for her interview guides for the Hamilton Rating Scales. She was heavily involved in the development of DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV and was made an Honorary Fellow of the APA for her contributions. She collaborated on the development and testing of the PRIME-MD, an interview guide designed to help primary care physicians make mental disorder diagnoses, and its self-report version, the PHQ. Dr. Williams is the author of many rating instruments and interview guides and more than 230 scholarly publications. She serves on the editorial boards of several psychiatric journals and is an active consultant to clinical trials on depression and anxiety.4 `7 Y! w# k* J  s5 Z7 b  R

; ^! Z) \3 X; Z# ZDr. Williams holds a B.S. in biology from Tufts University, an M.S. in marine biology from the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, and an M.S. and D.S.W. in social welfare from the Columbia University School of Social Work. In 1994, Dr. Williams founded the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR, now with more than 1,300 members) and served as its President for 2 years. In 1999, she was inducted into the Columbia University School of Social Work Alumni Association Hall of Fame, and in 2000 she received the Lifetime Achievement Award from SSWR.
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Michael B. First, M.D.* j  W. d2 Y2 ~% l
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Dr. First is a Research Psychiatrist in the Biometrics Department at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, is an Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and maintains a schema-focused cognitive therapy and psychopharmacology practice in Manhattan. He is a nationally and internationally recognized expert on psychiatric diagnosis and assessment.! C; Z5 J% \& P
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Dr. First is the editor and cochair of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR); the Editor of Text and Criteria for DSM-IV; the editor of the DSM-IV Primary Care Version; editor of the APA's Handbook of Psychiatric Measures; and Medical Editor of the Quick Reference Guides to the APA's Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. He has coauthored and coedited a number of books, including A Research Agenda for DSM-V; Advancing DSM: Dilemmas in Psychiatric Diagnosis; Am I OK? The Layman's Guide to the Psychiatrist's Bible; DSM-IV-TR Guidebook; DSM-IV-TR Handbook of Differential Diagnosis; the SCID; and DSM-IV-TR Casebook, and various software packages for psychiatric diagnosis. He has trained thousands of clinicians and researchers in diagnostic assessment and differential diagnosis.
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Acknowledgments' E  H) Y/ t+ {# a1 l

4 j: y% R1 p3 p4 {2 v3 oWe gratefully acknowledge the contributions of case material supplied by our colleagues listed below.
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4 ~( ?( `- j1 n+ `* |  d
! u, K" m9 P! ]Gene Abel, M.D.
) X! u5 A: I" K+ q) NHenry David Abraham, M.D.
' |8 F* a- G5 t. G$ ~8 z) tJacob Abraham, M.D.2 O4 {+ G1 {* C$ a- f, H
Hagop Akiskal, M.D.% s% \0 o  x! F3 H6 N+ v* }
Rena Appel, M.D.+ h9 @3 T$ v2 A7 |% i$ C
Lorian Baker, Ph.D.
, ?+ u, G( r/ i9 ^" n7 IMark S. Bauer, M.D.1 _" `( f  z6 B% Q1 v& Z
Steven Bauer, M.D.
1 c0 h; v4 I3 S. L2 I: L; M# GFred S. Berlin, M.D., Ph.D.
- c& A9 c6 Z. l8 M8 RHoward C. Blue, M.D.
/ b0 S' Z) l: C3 X% qAngela Bonavoglia, M.S.W.+ s# T' f+ [  ]1 W
John M. W. Bradford, M.B., F.R.C.P.C., D.A.B.P.N., F.R.C.Psych.4 y1 H, o' p$ e1 E+ o( t
Joan Brennan, Ph.D.7 l3 m1 t% l+ _& Q! f
Allan Burstein, M.D.
% w1 O- C, J4 uDeborah Cabaniss, M.D.
/ }* Q( Z2 p4 n4 FEve Caligor, M.D.
: {: U% o# W6 f! N7 W- Q/ IDennis Cantwell, M.D.7 w5 `1 M/ [* C
Michelle O. Clark, M.D.+ O3 O/ D! _) k5 Q/ u
David E. Comings M.D.* i( x% B  W" A8 |& H5 H
Anthony J. Costello, M.D.: ~: [) U" o/ Y5 p; b
George C. Curtis, M.D.# J$ T& d8 l+ I8 |, j( b. X2 i% h8 t; r
Robert L. Custer, M.D.2 p' o/ f& t. _8 c7 S+ n" f% d% H8 I
Pedro L. Dago, M.D.! l4 g3 d) b/ z8 O6 u% F& \
Carlo C. DiClemente, Ph.D.% l* d9 n4 D  q% `; b
Park Elliott Dietz, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D.2 |* u2 Y: ^0 m
Norman Greenspan Doidge, M.D.
$ {# Z8 B, q. ySteve Dummit, M.D.7 I9 |0 T' M( S. U& E
Julia Eilenberg, M.D.
$ g9 S4 Z6 V+ F5 I- }Armando R. Favazza, M.D.
9 X+ n. c) G) [6 ]Alan Felix, M.D.$ T+ U& a0 w8 {3 R0 f
Max Fink, M.D.& i' g4 ^7 Q9 d" c! z+ o& K4 n/ P, d7 C
Leslie M. Forman, M.D.3 L# f. c  O% b% }3 P
Allen J. Frances, M.D.' K7 ]/ b# D$ U4 [: _: {2 ~% g
Andrew J. Freinkel, M.D.
/ J5 [9 Y2 b, \( M. C6 TRichard Friedman, M.D.
3 w5 H, ?0 B$ ^9 q; `Abby J. Fyer, M.D.+ z) h- ?( r8 x6 |" A) I5 b& e3 k% P
Martha Gay, M.D.
8 S3 A& d, k; i5 t" Q; NPaul H. Gebhard, Ph.D., q( `1 Q5 g# g" N
Donald Goodwin, M.D.
; a, ^, p) I3 Y) _9 uArthur H. Green, M.D.: h" q5 o0 z# F) {6 M1 x* C
Richard Green, M.D.
% M2 M; d" d/ Z. s8 pStanley I. Greenspan, M.D.& R; |$ S$ H9 f& K7 i( q9 V
Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D.
8 E: @& v" }9 I8 FJohn G. Gunderson, M.D.  b& K6 [  q6 }: P" S1 U  v5 e
Katherine Halmi, M.D.4 ^4 f# m2 \- J, J# O
Deborah Hasin, Ph.D.
0 ~) z* [" H) QJoseph A. Himle, A.C.S.W.) ~! G# J2 z& ]5 X1 t5 B. ^
John R. Hughes, M.D.- D5 [8 Q: t: \9 n4 G* l5 W# {: [
Steven Hyler, M.D.
& R' t% J5 `& O0 J) ERichard L. Jenkins, M.D.
2 m2 c2 p9 X; E/ p& e* iEdwin E. Johnstone, M.D.
1 x' m, n& d: P" P/ i* [) cDavid Kahn, M.D.
1 w) p1 u9 W1 b" i0 A9 l' DHelen S. Kaplan, M.D., Ph.D./ S/ i& F6 W- l: T' r, B9 L
Sandra J. Kaplan, M.D.# |' v$ n  \$ e6 h
Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D.
% d9 C. J- u+ u6 |" v% oOtto Kernberg, M.D.& n* A9 {2 V. M; \1 X' D
Robert Kertzner, M.D.$ r# V/ @$ \; ?* C' w: i$ I% q
Donald Klein, M.D.
# k3 e7 i4 \6 S0 F) bRachel Klein, Ph.D.
3 I' J- ~0 R( t5 K4 P7 g) aS. David Kinzie, M.D./ ^0 X; w5 b! E8 }$ j2 f
Richard Kluft, M.D.; }# \) [+ I2 ^% `* l; ]
Bessel A. van der Kolk, M.D.
* F1 o) R* r1 w6 UHarold S. Koplewicz, M.D.8 X, A9 m9 p) Z) r
Robert F. Kraus, M.D.9 F1 h4 T, i# c9 Q' s
Robert S. Lampke, M.D.$ L% K' v+ C9 R1 p1 v' Z" N" T8 k
Cynthia G. Last, Ph.D.& l, i3 i, h/ m, c+ {! z) c
Eve Leeman, M.D.$ H& y, j5 R8 w  P8 n
Jerome H. Liebowitz, M.D.. G$ q0 s4 ~2 ?5 ^3 D1 ~
Harold I. Lief, M.D.( `; [* t( o9 N2 \2 t  x
Thomas F. Liffick, M.D.8 s. W, q7 S7 A, c
Z. J. Lipowski, M.D.! e  P& X& o2 l1 G: [# a
Joseph LoPiccolo, Ph.D.
- n( k" `  j( V/ F# ?Patrick J. McGrath, M.D.6 S1 q. ~# x9 f% z
Salvatore Mannuzza, Ph.D.4 a3 ~$ w' ]2 W2 H0 d1 g
Karen S. Marder, M.D.7 \/ A, \, Z; N# b
Randall Marshall, M.D.
8 b7 u7 [" z+ a4 TLynn Martin, R.N., M.S.N.
4 u" M! f- J5 {& _& A% SGary J. May, M.D.
7 P/ \& Y# Q9 E, jDavid M. McDowell, M.D.
0 [# d8 `) [% S" n+ X6 JPatrick McKeon, M.D.; Y- k' ^% d. O1 I: f! |
Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Dr. rer. nat.
5 |& O6 J  C% J* K7 a% S& rThomas W. Miller, Ph.D." B, n1 W+ A$ l& r5 Q- z
John Money, Ph.D.( U' v! j2 h0 b
J. Lawrence Moodie, M.D./ Z% a. ~5 u9 j' ]: M8 B) m
Frank Mucha, M.S.
/ ^0 s2 H# |* P& x# IAlistair Munro, M.D.
3 Z" ^+ M$ z% M; s/ VPhilip Muskin, M.D.
$ b: b; e2 j  h% Y6 kKathi Nader, M.S.W.
/ [7 s8 L  L. v: EYehuda Nir, M.D.$ }- V+ |3 Z( g- O- }5 |+ ?
Arlene Novick, A.C.S.W.1 a8 a, r$ U$ G2 ~
Maria Oquendo, M.D.$ W7 h# y: m! ~4 W/ @9 n1 H/ l
Roger Peele, M.D.
# w$ b4 o; P4 V/ \; v; x3 iGerald C. Peterson, M.D.) z) M1 }2 z1 E5 q% a
Katharine A. Phillips, M.D.
& |4 ~, k% v$ ], F/ m% @  X/ `Daniel Pine, M.D., y2 N0 G2 U# t  Y% D& K; @
Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.( }* \9 Y7 G* M9 M5 J
Michael Popkin, M.D., V, g0 t5 H8 \7 Q3 v! g* ^
Lloyd J. Price, M.D.0 W0 u* I6 P3 R7 b8 j
Joaquim Puig-Antich, M.D. (deceased), [& z1 i- T! ~* e+ v: G, F
Robert Pynoos, M.D.
2 S) f3 N  l4 TJudith L. Rapaport, M.D.
7 O/ q0 J7 C* l5 i  g, ?: g5 qQuentin R. Regestein, M.D.  s' A3 S" s# h
Phillip J. Resnick, M.D.
! i$ |$ v7 M- @% j9 G+ t7 D6 F* k3 @$ pRichard Ries, M.D.
! x8 x. h& c1 B/ y1 W2 l* k. _Norman E. Rosenthal, M.D.
6 A, Z# R; P) g0 _3 TNeal D. Ryan, M.D.
, s' w8 i5 m. hCarla Sadik, M.S.W.0 Y' s+ k$ O1 K0 [; M7 Q# D& {
Diana Sandberg, M.D.( o: Y; N( _0 h7 K. G' S# i9 m
Benjamin Seltzer, M.D.( F% N6 Q5 j) P- G- M
Sally K. Severino, M.D.
9 o* k  Y  W5 y# |7 C! hDavid Shaffer, M.D.
: T( ?* T" l: j6 s" V8 o7 eArthur Shapiro, M.D.4 V( D6 \' j2 p6 @, ^: I8 R, w5 f
Elaine Shapiro, Ph.D.
  Q' m; ?$ K1 B/ T$ ILawrence Sharpe, M.D.; L1 _# D6 f3 U4 V$ d
Michael Sheehy, M.D.  @2 i; [0 a. \8 P# v' }
Miriamne Singer, M.D.0 Z' p8 @; q9 ?- t. U: ^
Stephan Sorrell, M.D.0 I9 i& C$ A. }! c$ @5 t- @; ]2 v
David A. Soskis, M.D./ Z" ]" `1 P0 w
David Spiegel, M.D.- F% o: b( x0 r0 }1 b8 g! ^  D! h; U" Z
Laurie Stevens, M.D.
3 M* e+ G1 b% ]0 mAlan Stone, M.D.
4 H/ j; l8 _; Q7 L$ L8 P5 xMichael Stone, M.D.
! D! Z" Y2 S3 O  ^Ludwik S. Szymanski, M.D.9 P0 P  G+ i+ \8 M
Stuart W. Taylor, M.D.
7 m- T/ \4 W, c: @# K) w8 ^Susan Vaughan, M.D.4 d. {; S- l* y$ }+ q4 I- t
Fred R. Volkmar, M.D.! T8 `) G$ U& @
B. Timothy Walsh, M.D.
4 k4 A8 m! Z% w/ W7 h8 ZArnold M. Washton, Ph.D.
- @/ d4 T1 n8 S% {  p" {Paul A. Wender, M.D.) }: Z$ {& q: j
Katherine Whipple, Ph.D.* u4 ?& o7 @. `
Lorna Wing, M.D.
( B$ Q: Z0 E! }George Winokur, M.D.
5 G5 q* i8 t" Z# I5 }9 PRonald Winchel, M.D.6 Z0 \7 [$ e4 J# k6 \& D
Ken Winters, Ph.D.
& F* ^, C  Y2 p" O1 \" \Kenneth J. Zucker, Ph.D.) {) q- A+ v/ p% @& V3 t6 q  v. P

9 e  [( G7 K7 ^  Z  {  oCONTRIBUTORS OF INTERNATIONAL CASES/ d1 ^' `9 @' F: H; f$ L

7 ^, J% ^* \1 R& GThe following clinicians contributed cases to the International Cases chapter. They are listed along with the countries in which their cases were seen.: s( B* h8 |6 R, ^+ e

5 f% x- c; ?3 n+ a% s% v' ZRenato D. Alarcon, M.D., M.P.H., Peru# q. Y& e8 ^7 [3 x. S
Alv A. Dahl, M.D., Norway
; f8 v: t  {9 ]/ X- f# c3 [Joop T. V. M. de Jong, M.D., Ph.D, West Africa
2 W& ?( R+ q. Y& S5 F, q/ ^Ovidio A. deLeon, M.D., Panama' _3 b1 F, l- S
Peter M. Ellis, F.R.A.N.Z.C.P., New Zealand3 X+ K+ }2 m6 o+ {6 }, R
Yutaka Honda, M.D., Japan
/ n+ w( |+ L7 m3 V5 @, ]; I5 zS. T. C. Ilechukwu, M.D., Nigeria
/ I: d2 j, i6 x$ ^0 XArthur Kleinman, M.D., People's Republic of China
; u0 g  y) @4 fCarlos A. Leon, M.D., Colombia  b. C+ ^# G5 m. g1 s1 i  i
Werner Mombour, M.D., Germany
7 F/ S6 R% }$ ^* M; i/ {" }Vernon M. Neppe, M.D., Ph.D, South Africa: v0 J" \" X" k# f
Charles Pull, M.D., Luxembourg/ T* r+ O$ n6 {$ v! r
Nils Retterstol, Dr. Med., Norway
  G3 W9 H9 ~+ B2 KHsien Rin, M.D., Taiwan, Republic of China
/ I1 u, h2 t+ J+ [% BShekhar Saxena, M.D., India, ?; ?: H7 f5 T' k. C1 S/ `
Michael von Bose, M.D., Germany
: b3 f( P: z) j' RHans Ulrich Wittchen, Ph.D., Germany
2 F4 J" t. A5 P- {9 n1 |  lXu Youxin, M.D., People's Republic of China
; ~  k! E( `; V; PDerSon Young, M.D., People's Republic of China
  p+ V+ Q" k. H( ?1 q" WMichael Zaudig, M.D., Germany3 h1 v" T& b  z
Boris Zoubok, M.D., Russia

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