Assignments References Sample

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.

 

Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.

 

Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.

 

Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.

 

How do I use Harvard?

 

 

  1. In-text citations are made like this

 

Paraphrasing and in-text citations

Example
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 

 

Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).

 

Direct quotes and in-text citations 

Examples:
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
or
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’

 

 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.

 

Block quotes and in-text citations

Example:

Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.

 

  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).


Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].

A review article is an attempt by one or more scientists to sum up and analyze the current state of the research on a particular topic. Since a review article sums up results published in primary research articles it is a secondary source. Ideally, the author(s) searches for everything relevant to the topic, and then sorts it all out into a coherent view of the “state of the art” as it now stands. Review articles give you information on the background and context of a subject as well as the main people working in a field, recent major advances and discoveries, significant gaps in the research, current debates and ideas of where research might go next.

Review articles are virtual gold mines if you want to find out what the key articles are for a given topic. If you read and thoroughly digest a good review article, you should be able to “talk the talk” about a given topic. Unlike research articles, review articles are good places to get a basic idea about a topic.

There are different types of review articles:

Traditional or narrative literature review - “Critiques and summarizes a body of literature and draws conclusions about the topic in question”.

Cronin, P., Ryan, F. & Coughlan, M. 2008. Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. Br. J. Nurs. 17: 38-43.

 

Systematic review - “uses a more rigorous and well-defined approach to reviewing the literature in a specific subject area”.

Cronin, P., Ryan, F. & Coughlan, M. 2008. Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. Br. J. Nurs. 17: 38-43.

 

Meta-analysis - "Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of different studies to see if the overall effect is significant". McDonald, J.H. 2014. Handbook of Biological Statistics (3 ed.). Sparky House Publishing, Baltimore.

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