The Tropical Evergreen Forests lie on either side of the equator in places that receive more than 80% of annual rainfall. The hot and humid condition causes the luxuriant growth of a variety of vegetation.
In some places, the growth is thick that sunlight rarely reaches the ground. Forests of Amazon and Congo Basin are dark and gloomy in many places.
Common hardwood trees are Mahogany, Ebony and Rosewood, all of which are of great commercial value. There are Mangrove Forests in some coastal swamps and deltas. As these forests are dense and gloomy, no large animals can live here. Monkeys, birds, snakes, etc., are the common animals as they can climb to the treetops.
Mediterranean Forests and found on the western coast of continents approximately along the 400 North and South latitudes. These regions have a hot, dry summer and mild wet winter. Therefore, the plants found here are those that can protect themselves against loss of moisture in summer.
Trees are short with small, leathery leaves and long roots. Some trees like the cork have thick barks and some have spiny leaves. Most of the trees bear fruits that are exported all over the world. Common trees are cork, oak, olive and chestnut.
Common animals found here are a variety of goats, red fox, jackal and birds like the spoonbill and endangered golden eagle. The climate and soil of this region is ideal for fruit growing especially citrus fruits. A large number of people are engaged in horticulture. Some wheat is also grown.
Coniferous Forest are belt of evergreen trees that stretch across the continents of North America, Europe and Asia, roughly between 550 and 650 N latitude. These forests have large areas covered with a single variety of trees. The trees, which are conical, have needle-shaped leaves to withstand the severe cold and heavy snowfall. The common trees are pine, cedar, fir and spruce. Animals with thick fur inhabit these forests and thus many inhabitants of this region are hunters. The fox, reindeer and bear are valued for their fur.
The Tropical Deciduous forests occur just north and south of the hot and wet equatorial forests. This region has a distinct dry season; therefore, the trees shed their leaves at the onset of summer or winter. The most valuable trees are the teak and sal, oak and elm. This region has a great variety of animals like the lion, tiger, elephant, bear, and buffalo. There are smaller animals like the fox, a variety of deer, wild ass and monkeys.
Most of these areas receive moderate to heavy rainfall, which is seasonal. The climate is favorable for the growing of food crops like rice, wheat and millets in the drier parts. A large number of people are engaged in agriculture and related industries.
Tropicalevergreen forests (or tropical rain forests) are usually found in areas receiving more than 234 cm of rainfall and having a monthly mean temperature of 18 °C or higher in the coldest months. They occupy about seven percent of the Earth's surface and harbour more than half of the planet's terrestrial plants and animals. Tropical evergreen forests are dense, multi-layered, and harbour many types of plants and animals. These forest are found in the areas receiving heavy rainfall(more than 200 cm annual rainfall).They are very dense. Even the sunlight does not reach the ground. Numerous speices of trees are found in these forest. Different types of trees shed there leaves at different times of the year. Therefore,these forests always appear green and are known as evergreen forests. These forest are found in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands,along the slopes of Western Ghats and parts of North -eastern states of Assam, West Bengal and Odisha. These areas experience hot and humid climate with short dry season. The important trees of these forests are rosewood,ebony and mahogany.
The trees are evergreen as there is no period of drought or frost. The canopy tree species are mostly tall hardwoods with broad leaves that release large quantities of water through transpiration, in a cycle that is important in raising as much mineral nutrient material as possible from the soil. They do not shed their leaves at a time and therefore always remain green and are called evergreen forest. Here, the trees are 60 m in height (196 ft) and the rainfall is between 150 cm to 300 cm.
Species of trees
Coniferous temperate evergreen forests are most frequently dominated by species in the families Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. Broadleaf temperate evergreen forests include those in which Fagaceae, such as oaks, are common, those in which Nothofagaceae predominate, and the Eucalyptus forests of the Southern Hemisphere. There also are assorted temperate evergreen forests dominated by other families of trees, such as Lauraceae in laurel forest.
Temperateevergreen forests, coniferous, broad leaf, and mixed, are found largely in the temperatemid-latitudes of North America, Siberia, Canada, Australia, Africa, Scandinavia, Himalayas and western ghats of India. Broadleaf evergreen forests occur in particular in southern China, southeastern Brazil, parts of southeastern North America and the Pacific Northwest, and in countries around the Mediterranean Basin, such as Lebanon and Morocco. Other examples include the wet temperate conifer forests of northwestern North America.