Spinal Cord Injury Case Study Ppt Examples

1. Yıldırım K, Şengel K. Spinal kord yaralanmaları ve rehabilitasyonu (Spinal cord injury and rehabilitation) Klnk Akt Tıp Derg. 2004;(4):26–38.

2. Yip PK, Malaspina A. Spinal cord trauma and the molecular point of no return. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:6.[PMC free article][PubMed]

3. Cantu RC, Li YM, Abdulhamid M, Chin LS. Return to play after cervical spine injury in sports. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013;12:14–17.[PubMed]

4. Mahan ST, Mooney DP, Karlin LI, Hresko MT. Multiple level injuries in pediatric spinal trauma. J Trauma. 2009;67:537–542.[PubMed]

5. Sipski ML, Richards JS. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation: state of the science. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:310–342.[PubMed]

6. Kirshblum SC, Burns SP, Biering-Sorensen F, Donovan W, Graves DE, Jha A, Johansen M, Jones L, Krassioukov A, Mulcahey MJ, et al. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury (revised 2011) J Spinal Cord Med. 2011;34:535–546.[PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Gibson KL. Caring for a patient who lives with a spinal cord injury. Nursing. 2003;33:36–41; quiz 42.[PubMed]

8. Fries JM. Critical rehabilitation of the patient with spinal cord injury. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2005;28:179–187.[PubMed]

9. Barbin JM, Ninot G. Outcomes of a skiing program on level and stability of self-esteem and physical self in adults with spinal cord injury. Int J Rehabil Res. 2008;31:59–64.[PubMed]

10. Paker N, Soy D, Kesiktaş N, Nur Bardak A, Erbil M, Ersoy S, Ylmaz H. Reasons for rehospitalization in patients with spinal cord injury: 5 years’ experience. Int J Rehabil Res. 2006;29:71–76.[PubMed]

11. Hitzig SL, Tonack M, Campbell KA, McGillivray CF, Boschen KA, Richards K, Craven BC. Secondary health complications in an aging Canadian spinal cord injury sample. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;87:545–555.[PubMed]

12. Yuen HK, Hanson C. Body image and exercise in people with and without acquired mobility disability. Disabil Rehabil. 2002;24:289–296.[PubMed]

13. Chen SC, Lai CH, Chan WP, Huang MH, Tsai HW, Chen JJ. Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises in spinal cord injured patients. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:1337–1341.[PubMed]

14. Pickett GE, Campos-Benitez M, Keller JL, Duggal N. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Canada. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31:799–805.[PubMed]

15. DeVivo MJ, Chen Y, Mennemeyer ST, Deutsch A. Costs of care following spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2011;16:1–9 [DOİ: 10.1310/sci1604-1].

16. Munce SE, Wodchis WP, Guilcher SJ, Couris CM, Verrier M, Fung K, Craven BC, Jaglal SB. Direct costs of adult traumatic spinal cord injury in Ontario. Spinal Cord. 2013;51:64–69.[PubMed]

17. Mehrholz J, Elsner B, Werner C, Kugler J, Pohl M. Electromechanical-assisted training for walking after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD006185.[PubMed]

18. Berlowitz DJ, Tamplin J. Respiratory muscle training for cervical spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;7:CD008507.[PubMed]

19. Domingo A, Al-Yahya AA, Asiri Y, Eng JJ, Lam T. A systematic review of the effects of pharmacological agents on walking function in people with spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:865–879.[PMC free article][PubMed]

20. Wessels M, Lucas C, Eriks I, de Groot S. Body weight-supported gait training for restoration of walking in people with an incomplete spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Rehabil Med. 2010;42:513–519.[PubMed]

21. Taricco M, Adone R, Pagliacci C, Telaro E. Pharmacological interventions for spasticity following spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;28:CD001131.[PubMed]

22. Hitzig SL, Craven BC, Panjwani A, Kapadia N, Giangregorio LM, Richards K, Masani K, Popovic MR. Randomized trial of functional electrical stimulation therapy for walking in incomplete spinal cord injury: effects on quality of life and community participation. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2013;19:245–258.[PMC free article][PubMed]

23. Astorino TA, Harness ET, Witzke KA. Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:3027–3037.[PMC free article][PubMed]

24. Sadowsky CL, Hammond ER, Strohl AB, Commean PK, Eby SA, Damiano DL, Wingert JR, Bae KT, McDonald JW. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013;36:623–631.[PMC free article][PubMed]

25. Gorgey AS, Dolbow DR, Cifu DX, Gater DR. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation attenuates thigh skeletal muscles atrophy but not trunk muscles after spinal cord injury. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2013;23:977–984.[PubMed]

26. Karimi MT. Robotic rehabilitation of spinal cord injury individual. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2013;15:1–7.[PubMed]

27. Karimi MT. Functional walking ability of paraplegic patients: comparison of functional electrical stimulation versus mechanical orthoses. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2013;23:631–638.[PubMed]

28. Savaş F, Üstünel S. Omurilik yaralanması sonrası rehabilitasyon prensipleri (Principles of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury) In: Hancı M, Erhan B (eds): omurga ve omurilik yaralanmaları (spine and spinal cord injuries). İntertıp; 2013. pp. 585–588.

29. Tander B. Nörolojik hasarlı hastanın rehabilitasyonu (Neurological injured patients of rehabilitation) In: Şenel A, Çaylı S, Dalbayrak S, Temiz C, Arslantaş A(eds): Omurga travmalarında tedavi prensipleri (Principles of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury). Türk nöroşirürji derneği; 2011. pp. 297–308.

30. Şahin E. Omurilik yaralanmaları ve üst ekstremite ortezleri (Spinal cord injuries and upper extremity orthoses) In: Hancı M, Erhan B (eds): omurga ve omurilik yaralanmaları (spine and spinal cord injuries). İntertıp; 2013. pp. 603–615.

31. Chi JH. Combination therapy improves walking in spinal cord transaction. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:N10–N11.[PubMed]

32. Diong J, Harvey LA, Kwah LK, Eyles J, Ling MJ, Ben M, Herbert RD. Incidence and predictors of contracture after spinal cord injury--a prospective cohort study. Spinal Cord. 2012;50:579–584.[PubMed]

33. Jia X, Kowalski RG, Sciubba DM, Geocadin RG. Critical care of traumatic spinal cord injury. J Intensive Care Med. 2013;28:12–23.[PubMed]

34. Jacobs PL, Nash MS. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury. Sports Med. 2004;34:727–751.[PubMed]

35. Curtis KA, Tyner TM, Zachary L, Lentell G, Brink D, Didyk T, Gean K, Hall J, Hooper M, Klos J, et al. Effect of a standard exercise protocol on shoulder pain in long-term wheelchair users. Spinal Cord. 1999;37:421–429.[PubMed]

36. Kruger EA, Pires M, Ngann Y, Sterling M, Rubayi S. Comprehensive management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: current concepts and future trends. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013;36:572–585.[PMC free article][PubMed]

37. Patwardhan AG, Li SP, Gavin T, Lorenz M, Meade KP, Zindrick M. Orthotic stabilization of thoracolumbar injuries. A biomechanical analysis of the Jewett hyperextension orthosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1990;15:654–661.[PubMed]

38. Mehrholz J, Kugler J, Pohl M. Locomotor training for walking after spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2008;33:E768–E777.[PubMed]

39. Hastings JD. Seating assessment and planning. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2000;11:183–207, x.[PubMed]

40. Guest RS, Klose KJ, Needham-Shropshire BM, Jacobs PL. Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: part 4. Effect on physical self-concept and depression. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78:804–807.[PubMed]

41. Audu ML, Nataraj R, Gartman SJ, Triolo RJ. Posture shifting after spinal cord injury using functional neuromuscular stimulation--a computer simulation study. J Biomech. 2011;44:1639–1645.[PMC free article][PubMed]

42. Kirshblum SC, rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. In: Physical medicine and rehabilitation, principle and practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Willams&Wilkins; 2005. pp. 1715–1751.

43. Hawran S, Biering-Sørensen F. The use of long leg calipers for paraplegic patients: a follow-up study of patients discharged 1973-82. Spinal Cord. 1996;34:666–668.[PubMed]

44. Jaspers P, Peeraer L, Van Petegem W, Van der Perre G. The use of an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis by paraplegic individuals: a follow-up study. Spinal Cord. 1997;35:585–589.[PubMed]

45. Massucci M, Brunetti G, Piperno R, Betti L, Franceschini M. Walking with the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis (ARGO) in thoracic paraplegic patients: energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory performance. Spinal Cord. 1998;36:223–227.[PubMed]

46. Kantor C, Andrews BJ, Marsolais EB, Solomonow M, Lew RD, Ragnarsson KT. Report on a conference on motor prostheses for workplace mobility of paraplegic patients in North America. Paraplegia. 1993;31:439–456.[PubMed]

47. Yozbatiran N, Berliner J, O’Malley MK, Pehlivan AU, Kadivar Z, Boake C, Francisco GE. Robotic training and clinical assessment of upper extremity movements after spinal cord injury: a single case report. J Rehabil Med. 2012;44:186–188.[PubMed]

48. Schwartz I, Sajina A, Neeb M, Fisher I, Katz-Luerer M, Meiner Z. Locomotor training using a robotic device in patients with subacute spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:1062–1067.[PubMed]

49. Stiens SA, Kirshblum SC, Groah SL, McKinley WO, Gittler MS. Spinal cord injury medicine. 4. Optimal participation in life after spinal cord injury: physical, psychosocial, and economic reintegration into the environment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:S72–81, S90-8.[PubMed]

50. Baslo M. Omurilik yaralanmalı hasta için konut ve çevre düzenlemeleri ‘evrensel tasarım’ (Housing and environmental regulations for spinal cord injured patients’ universal design’) In: omurga ve omurilik yaralanmaları (spine and spinal cord injuries), editörler; Hancı M, Erhan B. İntertıp; 2013. pp. 645–668.

51. Lee Y, Mittelstaedt R. Impact of injury level and self-monitoring on free time boredom of people with spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2004;26:1143–1149.[PubMed]

52. Loy DP, Dattilo J, Kleiber DA, Exploring the influence of leisure on adjustment: Development of the leisure and spinal cord injury adjustment model. Leisure Scie. 2003;25:231–255.

53. Youngstrom MJ. The Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: the evolution of our professional language. Am J Occup Ther. 2002;56:607–608.[PubMed]

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Chief Complaint: 19-year-old man with broken back.

History: Allen Dexter, a 19-year-old college student, was rock climbing when he fell 30 feet to the ground. Paramedics arriving at the scene found him lying in the supine position, unable to move any extremities and complaining of neck pain. He was awake, alert, and oriented to his current location, the date and day of the week, and the details of his fall. His responses to questioning were appropriate. He complained that he could not feel his arms and legs. His pupils were equal and reactive to light. He showed no other signs of injury except for several scrapes on his arms. His vital signs revealed a blood pressure of 110 / 72, heart rate of 82 beats per minute, respirations of 18 per minute. The paramedics applied a cervical collar, placed him on a back board, immobilized his head, and transported him to the trauma center by helicopter.

Upon examination at the hospital, Allen had minimal biceps brachii stretch reflexes, but no triceps or wrist extensor reflexes. All other muscle stretch reflexes in the upper and lower extremities were absent. His perception of sensory stimuli ended bilaterally at an imaginary line drawn across his chest about 3 inches above the nipples (i.e. everything below felt numb). He had some sensation in his arms, but could not localize touch or describe texture with any consistency there. He was able to raise his shoulders and tighten his biceps brachii slightly in each arm, but could not raise either arm against gravity. His lower extremities were flaccid, despite attempts to move them. Vital signs were taken again at the hospital and were as follows: blood pressure=94 / 55; heart rate=64; respiratory rate=24 (with shallow breathing). His oral temperature was 102.2 degrees F. His color was dusky and his skin was warm and dry to the touch.

X-rays taken upon arrival revealed a fractured vertebra at a particular location. A chest X-ray showed a decreased lung expansion upon inhalation. Blood tests were normal, with the exception of a respiratory acidosis (blood pH = 7.25). The neurosurgeons immobilized his neck by inserting tongs into the skull above the ears to hold his neck in a position so that no further injury could occur. Allen was transferred to intensive care and his condition was stabilized.

A physical examination four days later revealed normal vital signs and no change in his arm strength or sensation, but also marked spasms and exaggerated stretch reflexes of the lower extremities. He also had urinary incontinence which required the placement of a Foley catheter connected to a urine collection bag.

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