|Born||Henri Édouard Naville|
(1844-06-14)14 June 1844
|Died||17 October 1926(1926-10-17) (aged 82)|
|Occupation||Egyptologist, biblical scholar|
Henri Édouard Naville (14 June 1844 – 17 October 1926) was a Swissarchaeologist, Egyptologist and Biblical scholar.
Born in Geneva, he studied at the University of Geneva, King's College, London, and the Universities of Bonn, Paris, and Berlin. He was a student of Karl Richard Lepsius and later his literary executor.
He first visited Egypt in 1865, where he copied the Horus texts in the temple at Edfu. During the Franco-Prussian War he served as a captain in the Swiss army. His early work concerned the solar texts and the Book of the Dead. In 1882 he was invited to work for the newly founded Egypt Exploration Fund. He excavated a number of sites in the Nile Delta including Tell el-Maskhuta (1882), the Wadi Tumilat (1885–86), Bubastis (1886–89), Tell el-Yahudiyeh (1887), Saft el-Hinna (1887), Ahnas (1890–91), Mendes and Tell el-Muqdam (1892). Many of the objects he found in his Delta excavations are preserved in the Cairo Museum, British Museum, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
In the 1890s he excavated at the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri where he was assisted by David George Hogarth, Somers Clarke and Howard Carter. In 1903-06 he returned to Deir el-Bahri to excavate the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II, assisted by Henry Hall. In 1910 he worked in the royal necropolis at Abydos and his last excavation work was in the Osireion at Abydos which was left incomplete at the start of World War I.
Naville was the recipient of numerous international awards and honors and was the author of innumerable publications, both on his excavations and his textual studies. He died at Malagny (near Geneva) in 1926.
Naville was an archaeologist of the old fashioned school that concerned itself with large scale clearance of sites and little regard for the detailed evidence possibly to be found in the course of excavation. In his lifetime he was criticized by W. M. Flinders Petrie for his archaeological methods and D. G. Hogarth was sent by the Egypt Excavation Fund to observe and report on the nature of his work at Deir el-Bahri. His published reports are evidence of the lack of detail, but this is also typical of much of the archaeological practice of the time.
He received an honorary doctorate (LL.D) from the University of Glasgow in June 1901.
- Warren R. Dawson and Eric P. Uphill, Who Was Who in Egyptology, second revised edition, London, 1972.
- ^"Glasgow University jubilee". The Times (36481). London. 14 June 1901. p. 10.
Swiss Egyptologist and Biblical scholar; he was born in Geneva, 14 June 1844, son of Adrien N. and Sophia Rigaud; he prepared himself for his work with unusual thoroughness, being educated at the University of Geneva, King’s College, London, and the Universities of Bonn, Paris, and Berlin, 1865-8; he first worked entirely on the philological side and first visited Egypt in 1865, when he copied the Horus texts at Edfu; he studied under Lepsius and was his literary executor, bringing out the 5 vols. of notes to the Denkmäler with Borchardt, Sethe, and other helpers; as a captain in the Swiss army during the Franco-Prussian war he helped to escort prisoners of Bourbaki’s army into Switzerland after their defeat by von Werder near Dijon, 1870-1; he next worked on the solar texts and the Book of the Dead, publishing important works in these fields, and later, with Schiaparelli, helped Lefébure on the publication of the tomb of Seti I at Thebes; he was the first excavator of the EEF and had already acquired a European reputation when he was invited to dig for the newly founded Society 399 in 1882; he excavated at Tell el-Maskhuta, 1883, the report for this work establishing the format for future publications of this type; he excavated and explored the Wadi Tumilat, 1885-6, the area at the west end of which he identified as the Biblical land of Goshen; excavated at Bubastis, 1886-9; from here and other sites Naville brought back among other objects the colossal granite head of Amenemhat III now in the British Museum (EA 1063), and huge columns and Hathor-capitals which went to Cairo, London, and museums such as Boston in America; excavated at Tell el-Yahudiya, 1887, Saft el- Hinna, 1887, Ahnas (Herakleopolis), 1890-1, Mendes and Tell Mukdam, 1892, in all about 10 Delta sites; he next went to Upper Egypt to excavate Deir el-Bahari, 1893-6, helped by D. G. Hogarth, Somers Clarke, and H. Carter; returning to the field some years later he cleared the Menthuhotep temple with H. R. Hall, 1903-7; Naville had been brought up in the old-fashioned school of Mariette and Maspero and liked to work on great temples and large monuments, unlike Petrie, but he did make a further examination of the royal necropolis at Abydos, 1910; his last great piece of field-work was the excavation of the Osireion, with G. A. Wainwright and Capt. Gibson, which was left unfinished at the outbreak of war in 1914; he married Marguerite, daughter of Count Alexandre de Pourtalès, 1873, a talented artist who executed the plates for most of his publications; she died 14 Dec. 1930; during his long life he acquired many hons. and distinctions; DCL; LLD; PhD; DLitt; DTheol; Hon. FSA; Fellow of King’s Coll. London; for. Assoc. Institute of France; member hist.-philos. class of the Videnskabs - Selskabet of Christiana; For. Member Budapest Acad.; Acad. Vienna; Corr. of Grace of Order of St. John of Jerusalem; Commander of the Crown of Italy; Officer Légion d’honneur; Knight of the Red Eagle, Prussia and Polar Star, Sweden; Hon. Prof. University of Geneva; Naville firmly opposed the Berlin School on their views of the Semitic aspect of Egyptian language; he possessed a formidable intelligence and could argue his case extremely effectively; he has been proved right in some controversies such as that with Sethe on the Tuthmoside succession, and his theories on the Exodus and its route still remain fundamental in this subject; he published innumerable articles and reviews in many journals, his principal books being, Textes relatifs au mythe d’Horus, recueillis dans le temple d’Edfou, 1870; La litanie du soleil: inscriptions recueillies dans les tombeaux des rois à Thèbes, 1875; Inscription historique de Pinodjem III, 1883; Les quatre stèles orientées du Musée de Marseille, 1880; The store-city of Pithom and the route of the Exodus, 1885, and later eds.; Das aegyptische Todtenbuch der 18. bis 20. Dynastie ..., fol. 3 vols., 1 vol. text, 1886, a vast project involving hundreds of plates of drawings; The shrine of Saft el Henneh and the land of Goshen, 1885, 1887; The historical results of the excavations at Bubastis, 1889; The Mound of the Jew and the city of Onias. Belbeis, Samanood, Abusir, Tukh el Karmus. 1887, 1890; Bubastis, 1887- 1889, 1891; The route of the Exodus, 1891; The Festival-Hall of Osorkon II in the Great Temple of Bubastis, 1887-89, 1892; Ahnas el Medineh (Heracleopolis Magna). With chapters on Mendes, the nome of Thoth, and Leontopolis, 1894; The Temple of Deir el Bahari, Introductory Memoir, 1894; The Temple of Deir el Bahari, royal fol., 6 vols. 1895-1908; with G. Legrain, L’Aile nord du pylône d’Aménophis III à Karnak, Les Bas-reliefs, 1902; La religion des anciens Égyptiens, 1906; The XIth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari, 3 vols., with H. R. Hall and others, 1907-13; Le papyrus hiéroglyphique de Kamara et le papyrus hiératique de Nesikhonsou au Musée du Caire, 1912; Archaeology of the Old Testament, 1913; The Cemeteries of Abydos, pt. 1, with T. E. Peet, H. R. Hall, and K. Haddon, 1914; Le papyrus hiératique de Katseshni au Musée du Caire, 1914; The Schweich Lectures, The Text of the Old Testament, 1916; L’évolution de la langue égyptienne et les langues sémitiques, 1920; The Law of Moses, 1920; La haute critique dans le Pentateuque, 1921; Le Deutéronome, un livre mosaïque, 1924; L’écriture égyptienne: essai sur l’origine et la formation de l’une des premières écritures méditerranéennes, 1926; Détails relevés dans les ruines de quelques temples égyptiens ..., posth. on Abydos, Bahbit el-Higara and Samannud, completed from his notes by Jéquier and notes by M. Naville, 1930; Papyrus funéraires de la XXe Dynastie, 2 vols.; he also wrote chapters in The tomb of Hâtshopsîtsû, 1906, and The Funeral Papyrus of 400 Iouiya, 1908, by T. M. Davis; completed the trans. and commentary in The Book of the Dead of Renouf, see Renouf’s Life Work, vol. 4, 1907; his correspondence is in the library of Geneva; he died in Malagny, nr. Geneva, 17 Oct. 1926.